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Search results for 'Nicholi': Page 7

Jan 14, 2023

An epigenetic mechanism for over-consolidation of fear memories

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Excessive fear is a hallmark of anxiety disorders, a major cause of disease burden worldwide. Substantial evidence supports a role of prefrontal cortex-amygdala circuits in the regulation of fear and anxiety, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate their activity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that downregulation of the histone methyltransferase PRDM2 in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex enhances fear expression by modulating fear memory consolidation. We further show that Prdm2 knock-down (KD) in neurons that project from the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex to the basolateral amygdala (dmPFC-BLA) promotes increased fear expression. Prdm2 KD in the dmPFC-BLA circuit also resulted in increased expression of genes involved in synaptogenesis, suggesting that Prdm2 KD modulates consolidation of conditioned fear by modifying synaptic strength at dmPFC-BLA projection targets.

Jan 13, 2023

UVA Solves Mysteries About Leading Biomarker for Alzheimerโ€™s

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

๐๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ค๐ญ๐ก๐ซ๐จ๐ฎ๐ ๐ก!

๐๐ž๐ฎ๐ซ๐จ๐ฌ๐œ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐ฌ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐ฌ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฏ๐ž ๐ฆ๐ฒ๐ฌ๐ญ๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐ž๐ฌ ๐š๐›๐จ๐ฎ๐ญ ๐ฅ๐ž๐š๐๐ข๐ง๐  ๐›๐ข๐จ๐ฆ๐š๐ซ๐ค๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐€๐ฅ๐ณ๐ก๐ž๐ข๐ฆ๐ž๐ซโ€™๐ฌ

๐™๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ ๐™ค๐™› ๐™‘๐™ž๐™ง๐™œ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™– ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ช๐™ง๐™ค๐™จ๐™˜๐™ž๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™จ ๐™๐™–๐™ซ๐™š ๐™ง๐™š๐™ซ๐™š๐™–๐™ก๐™š๐™™ ๐™๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™– ๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™ญ๐™ž๐™˜ ๐™›๐™ค๐™ง๐™ข ๐™ค๐™› ๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ช ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ž๐™ฃ, ๐™ฃ๐™ค๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™ง๐™ž๐™ค๐™ช๐™จ ๐™›๐™ค๐™ง ๐™›๐™ค๐™ง๐™ข๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™œ๐™ก๐™š๐™จ ๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™—๐™ง๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™จ ๐™ค๐™› ๐™ฅ๐™š๐™ค๐™ฅ๐™ก๐™š ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐˜ผ๐™ก๐™ฏ๐™๐™š๐™ž๐™ข๐™š๐™งโ€™๐™จ ๐™™๐™ž๐™จ๐™š๐™–๐™จ๐™š ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™จ๐™š๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™–๐™ก ๐™ค๐™ฉ๐™๐™š๐™ง ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ช๐™ง๐™ค๐™™๐™š๐™œ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š ๐™™๐™ž๐™จ๐™ค๐™ง๐™™๐™š๐™ง๐™จ, ๐™จ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™™๐™จ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™ง๐™ค๐™ช๐™œ๐™ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™—๐™ง๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™จ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™™๐™ž๐™จ๐™š๐™–๐™จ๐™š ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ค๐™œ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™จ๐™š๐™จ.

Continue reading “UVA Solves Mysteries About Leading Biomarker for Alzheimerโ€™s” »

Jan 10, 2023

New research identifies a cognitive mechanism linked to reduced susceptibility to fake news

Posted by in categories: internet, neuroscience

Insightfulness might play a critical role in the ability to assess the accuracy of information, according to new research published in the journal Thinking & Reasoning. The study found that people with greater insight-based problem solving skills were less likely to fall for fake news.

With rise of the internet and social media, susceptibility to misinformation has become of increasing concern. The authors of the new research sought to better understand the cognitive mechanisms associated with believing in misinformation. They were particularly interested in the role of insight-based problem solving.

โ€œIโ€™m a neuroscientist and study the neural correlates of creativity and idea generation, specifically how we generate ideas accompanied by โ€˜Aha! momentsโ€™ i.e., insights,โ€ said study author Carola Salvi, a professor at the John Cabot University of Rome and an associate faculty member at the University of Texas at Austin. โ€œIn this study, we investigated the relationship between insightfulness and aspects of social reasoning, such as believing in fake news, overclaiming, and bullshit.โ€

Jan 10, 2023

Brain Area Necessary for Fluid Intelligence Identified โ€” Defining Feature of Human Cognition

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, education, life extension, neuroscience

๐๐ซ๐š๐ข๐ง ๐€๐ซ๐ž๐š ๐๐ž๐œ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐…๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ข๐ ๐ˆ๐ง๐ญ๐ž๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ข๐ ๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐ˆ๐๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ข๐Ÿ๐ข๐ž๐ โ€” ๐ƒ๐ž๐Ÿ๐ข๐ง๐ข๐ง๐  ๐…๐ž๐š๐ญ๐ฎ๐ซ๐ž ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐‡๐ฎ๐ฆ๐š๐ง ๐‚๐จ๐ ๐ง๐ข๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง

๐˜ผ ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™–๐™ข ๐™ก๐™š๐™™ ๐™—๐™ฎ ๐™๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ ๐˜พ๐™ค๐™ก๐™ก๐™š๐™œ๐™š ๐™‡๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™™๐™ค๐™ฃ (๐™๐˜พ๐™‡) ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š๐™ง๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ ๐˜พ๐™ค๐™ก๐™ก๐™š๐™œ๐™š ๐™‡๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™™๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™ƒ๐™ค๐™จ๐™ฅ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™–๐™ก๐™จ (๐™๐˜พ๐™‡๐™ƒ) ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™š๐™–๐™ง๐™˜๐™๐™š๐™ง๐™จ ๐™๐™–๐™จ ๐™ข๐™–๐™ฅ๐™ฅ๐™š๐™™ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™ฅ๐™–๐™ง๐™ฉ๐™จ ๐™ค๐™› ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™—๐™ง๐™–๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™จ๐™ช๐™ฅ๐™ฅ๐™ค๐™ง๐™ฉ ๐™ค๐™ช๐™ง ๐™–๐™—๐™ž๐™ก๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ ๐™ฉ๐™ค ๐™จ๐™ค๐™ก๐™ซ๐™š ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ค๐™—๐™ก๐™š๐™ข๐™จ ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™๐™ค๐™ช๐™ฉ ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ž๐™ค๐™ง ๐™š๐™ญ๐™ฅ๐™š๐™ง๐™ž๐™š๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™š โ€” ๐™ค๐™ฉ๐™๐™š๐™ง๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™จ๐™š ๐™ ๐™ฃ๐™ค๐™ฌ๐™ฃ ๐™–๐™จ ๐™›๐™ก๐™ช๐™ž๐™™ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™ž๐™œ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™š. ๐™๐™ก๐™ช๐™ž๐™™ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™ž๐™œ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™˜๐™š ๐™ž๐™จ ๐™–๐™ง๐™œ๐™ช๐™–๐™—๐™ก๐™ฎ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™™๐™š๐™›๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™›๐™š๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ช๐™ง๐™š ๐™ค๐™› ๐™๐™ช๐™ข๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™œ๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ. ๐™„๐™ฉ ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™š๐™™๐™ž๐™˜๐™ฉ๐™จ ๐™š๐™™๐™ช๐™˜๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ก ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™ฅ๐™ง๐™ค๐™›๐™š๐™จ๐™จ๐™ž๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ก ๐™จ๐™ช๐™˜๐™˜๐™š๐™จ๐™จ, ๐™จ๐™ค๐™˜๐™ž๐™–๐™ก ๐™ข๐™ค๐™—๐™ž๐™ก๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ, ๐™๐™š๐™–๐™ก๐™ฉ๐™, ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™ก๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™œ๐™š๐™ซ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ฎ. ๐™„๐™ฉ ๐™–๐™ก๐™จ๐™ค ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ง๐™ง๐™š๐™ก๐™–๐™ฉ๐™š๐™จ ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™ข๐™–๐™ฃ๐™ฎ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™œ๐™ฃ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š ๐™–๐™—๐™ž๐™ก๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™š๐™จ ๐™จ๐™ช๐™˜๐™ ๐™–๐™จ ๐™ข๐™š๐™ข๐™ค๐™ง๐™ฎ.


A team led by University College London (UCL) and University College London Hospitals (UCLH) researchers has mapped the parts of the brain that support our ability to solve problems without prior experience โ€“ otherwise known as fluid intelligence.

Continue reading “Brain Area Necessary for Fluid Intelligence Identified โ€” Defining Feature of Human Cognition” »

Jan 10, 2023

Variety of healthy eating patterns linked with lower risk of premature death

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, food, health

A variety of healthy eating patterns are linked to reduced risk of premature death, according to a new study led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health researchers. They found that participants who scored high on adherence to at least one of four healthy eating patterns were less likely to die during the study period from any cause and less likely to die from cardiovascular disease, cancer, or respiratory disease, compared with people with lower scores. The findings are consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for America, which recommend multiple healthy eating patterns.

โ€œThe Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended to provide science-based dietary advice that promotes and reduces major chronic diseases. Thus, it is critical to examine the associations between DGAs-recommended dietary patterns and long-term outcomes, especially mortality,โ€ said corresponding author Frank Hu, Fredrick J. Stare Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology and chair of the Department of Nutrition.

The study will be published online January 9, 2023, in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Jan 9, 2023

Human and Neanderthal brains have a surprising โ€˜youthfulโ€™ quality in common, new research finds

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Modern humans have a youthful brain, and this โ€œPeter Pan syndromeโ€ is also seen in Neanderthals.

Many believe our particularly large brain is what makes us human โ€” but is there more to it? The brainโ€™s shape, as well as the shapes of its component parts (lobes) may also be important.

Jan 8, 2023

Mirror test of wild penguins suggests they may possess self-awareness

Posted by in category: government

Penguins may be self-aware.


A trio of researchersโ€”one with the Indian governmentโ€™s Ministry of Earth Sciences, another with the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay and the third with the National Institute of Advanced Studies, also in Indiaโ€”has found that some species of wild penguins may have some degree of self-awareness.

Prabir Ghosh Dastidar, Azizuddin Khan and Anindya Sinha have written a paper describing their study of the behavior of Adรฉlie in Antarctica and what they learned in their effort. The full paper is available on the bioRxiv preprint server.

Continue reading “Mirror test of wild penguins suggests they may possess self-awareness” »

Jan 4, 2023

Lab-grown retinal eye cells make successful connections, open door for clinical trials to treat blindness

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

๐‹๐š๐›-๐ ๐ซ๐จ๐ฐ๐ง ๐ซ๐ž๐ญ๐ข๐ง๐š๐ฅ ๐ž๐ฒ๐ž ๐œ๐ž๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐ฆ๐š๐ค๐ž ๐ฌ๐ฎ๐œ๐œ๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ๐Ÿ๐ฎ๐ฅ ๐œ๐จ๐ง๐ง๐ž๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ, ๐จ๐ฉ๐ž๐ง ๐๐จ๐จ๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐จ๐ซ ๐œ๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ข๐œ๐š๐ฅ ๐ญ๐ซ๐ข๐š๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐ญ๐จ ๐ญ๐ซ๐ž๐š๐ญ ๐›๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐๐ง๐ž๐ฌ๐ฌ

๐™๐™š๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ก ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™จ ๐™œ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ฌ๐™ฃ ๐™›๐™ง๐™ค๐™ข ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ข ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™จ ๐™˜๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™˜๐™ ๐™ค๐™ช๐™ฉ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™˜๐™ฉ ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ž๐™œ๐™๐™—๐™ค๐™ง๐™จ, ๐™–๐™˜๐™˜๐™ค๐™ง๐™™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™ฉ๐™ค ๐™– ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ฌ ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ช๐™™๐™ฎ, ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ก๐™š๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™– โ€œ๐™๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™๐™จ๐™๐™–๐™ ๐™šโ€ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™ข๐™–๐™ฎ ๐™จ๐™๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™จ ๐™–๐™ง๐™š ๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™™๐™ฎ ๐™›๐™ค๐™ง ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ž๐™–๐™ก๐™จ ๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™๐™ช๐™ข๐™–๐™ฃ๐™จ ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™™๐™š๐™œ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š ๐™š๐™ฎ๐™š ๐™™๐™ž๐™จ๐™ค๐™ง๐™™๐™š๐™ง๐™จ.๐™๐™š๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™–๐™ก ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™จ ๐™œ๐™ง๐™ค๐™ฌ๐™ฃ ๐™›๐™ง๐™ค๐™ข ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™š๐™ข ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™จ ๐™˜๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™˜๐™ ๐™ค๐™ช๐™ฉ ๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™ ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ฃ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™˜๐™ฉ ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ž๐™œ๐™๐™—๐™ค๐™ง๐™จ, ๐™–๐™˜๐™˜๐™ค๐™ง๐™™๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™ฉ๐™ค ๐™– ๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ฌ ๐™จ๐™ฉ๐™ช๐™™๐™ฎ, ๐™˜๐™ค๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ก๐™š๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™– โ€œ๐™๐™–๐™ฃ๐™™๐™จ๐™๐™–๐™ ๐™šโ€ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™–๐™ฉ ๐™ข๐™–๐™ฎ ๐™จ๐™๐™ค๐™ฌ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก๐™จ ๐™–๐™ง๐™š ๐™ง๐™š๐™–๐™™๐™ฎ ๐™›๐™ค๐™ง ๐™ฉ๐™ง๐™ž๐™–๐™ก๐™จ ๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™๐™ช๐™ข๐™–๐™ฃ๐™จ ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™ ๐™™๐™š๐™œ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ง๐™–๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ซ๐™š ๐™š๐™ฎ๐™š ๐™™๐™ž๐™จ๐™ค๐™ง๐™™๐™š๐™ง๐™จ.


Retinal cells grown from stem cells can reach out and connect with neighbors, according to a new study, completing a โ€œhandshakeโ€ that may show the cells are ready for trials in humans with degenerative eye disorders.

Continue reading “Lab-grown retinal eye cells make successful connections, open door for clinical trials to treat blindness” »

Jan 3, 2023

Artificial DNA can kill cancer

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry

๐‘๐ž๐ฌ๐ž๐š๐ซ๐œ๐ก๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ ๐š๐ญ ๐ญ๐ก๐ž ๐”๐ง๐ข๐ฏ๐ž๐ซ๐ฌ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐“๐จ๐ค๐ฒ๐จ ๐ข๐ง ๐‰๐š๐ฉ๐š๐ง ๐ก๐š๐ฏ๐ž ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ž๐ ๐š๐ซ๐ญ๐ข๐Ÿ๐ข๐œ๐ข๐š๐ฅ ๐ƒ๐๐€ ๐ญ๐จ ๐ญ๐š๐ซ๐ ๐ž๐ญ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ค๐ข๐ฅ๐ฅ ๐œ๐š๐ง๐œ๐ž๐ซ ๐œ๐ž๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ฌ ๐ข๐ง ๐š ๐ง๐ž๐ฐ ๐ฐ๐š๐ฒ.

The method was effective in lab tests against human cervical cancer-and breast cancer-derived cells, and against malignant melanoma cells from mice. The team created a pair of chemically synthesized, hairpin-shaped, cancer-killing DNA. When the DNA pairs were injected into cancer cells, they connected to microRNA (miRNA) molecules that are overproduced in certain cancers.

Once connected to the miRNA, they unraveled and joined together, forming longer chains of DNA which triggered an immune response. This response not only killed the cancer cells but prevented further growth of cancerous tissue. This method is different from conventional anticancer drug treatments and is hoped to bring about a new era of drug development.

Jan 2, 2023

Researchers study pain-relieving neural mechanisms

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

The motor cortex controls the voluntary movement of muscles. It remains largely unclear why its electrical or magnetic stimulation can alleviate therapy-resistant chronic painโ€”albeit unreliably. An interdisciplinary research group at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg (MFHD) has now tracked down the underlying mechanisms and nerve pathways in mice.

The scientists showed that certain nerve pathways of the motor cerebral cortex are indirectly connected to the emotion centers in the brain, process both -related information and emotions by direct activation, and thus reduce the sensation of pain. Consequently, the team not only defines a new brain circuit for neurostimulation in pain therapy, but also brings the brainโ€™s own reward system into focus as a starting point for future treatments. The results are now published in the journal Science.

The research was conducted within the framework of CRC1158 โ€œFrom Nociception to Chronic Pain,โ€ whose spokesperson is Professor Dr. Rohini Kuner, Director of the Institute of Pharmacology at the MFHD.

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