# Professor Ray J. Solomonoff

Ray J. Solomonoff, M.S.
is the founder of the branch of Artificial Intelligence based on machine
learning, prediction, and probability. He circulated the
first report on
machine learning in 1956.

Ray intended to deliver an invited lecture at the upcoming
AGI 2010, the Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (March
5–8
2010) in Lugano. The AGI conference series would not even exist
without his essential theoretical contributions. With great sadness
AGI 2010 will be held “In Memoriam Ray Solomonoff.” He will live on
in the many minds shaped by his revolutionary ideas.

Ray invented
algorithmic probability, with
Kolmogorov Complexity as a
side product, in 1960. He first described his results at a Conference at
Caltech, 1960, and in the report
*A Preliminary Report on
a
General Theory of Inductive Inference*. He clarified these ideas
more
fully in his 1964 publications: *A Formal Theory of Inductive
Inference*
*Part I* and
*Part II*.

As a young man, Ray decided to major in physics because it was the most
general of the
sciences, and through it, he could learn to apply mathematics to
problems
of all
kinds.
He earned his M.S. in Physics from the University of Chicago in 1950.

Although Ray is best known for Algorithmic Probability and his General
Theory of Inductive Inference, he made other important early
discoveries,
many directed toward his goal of developing a machine that could solve
hard problems using probabilistic methods. He wrote three papers, two
with Rapoport, in
1950–52, that are
regarded as the earliest statistical analysis of networks.
They are *Structure of Random Nets*,
*Connectivity of Random Nets*, and
*An Exact Method for the Computation of the Connectivity of Random
Nets*.

He was one of the 10 attendees at the 1956 Dartmouth Summer Research
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the seminal event for artificial
intelligence as a field. He wrote and circulated a report among the
attendees:
*An Inductive Inference Machine*. It viewed machine
learning as probabilistic, with an emphasis on the importance of
training sequences, and on the use of parts of previous solutions to
problems in constructing trial solutions for new problems. He published
a
version of his findings in 1957. These were the first
papers to be
written on Machine Learning.

In the late 1950s, he invented probabilistic languages and their
associated grammars. An example of this is his report
*A Progress Report on Machines to Learn to Translate Languages and
Retrieve Information*.
A probabilistic language
assigns a probability
value to every possible string. Generalizing the concept of
probabilistic grammars led him to his
breakthrough discovery in 1960 of Algorithmic Probability.

Prior to the 1960s, the usual method of calculating probability was
based on frequency: taking the ratio of favorable results to the total
number of trials. In his 1960 publication
*A Preliminary Report on a General Theory of Inductive
Inference*, and, more completely, in his
1964 publications *A Formal Theory of Inductive
Inference*
*Part I* and
*Part II*, Ray seriously revised this definition of
probability. He called this new form of probability “Algorithmic
Probability”.

What was later called Kolmogorov Complexity was a side product of his
General Theory. He described this idea in 1960: “Consider a very long
sequence of symbols … We shall consider such a sequence of symbols to
be ‘simple’ and have a high a priori probability, if there exists a very
brief description of this sequence — using, of course, some sort of
stipulated description method. More exactly, if we use only the symbols
0 and 1 to express our description, we will assign the probability
2^{-N}
to a sequence of symbols if its shortest possible binary description
contains *N* digits.”

In his paper
*Complexity-based Induction Systems, Comparisons and convergence
Theorems*, Ray
showed that Algorithmic Probability is complete;
that is, if there is any describable regularity in a body of data,
Algorithmic Probability will eventually discover that regularity,
requiring a relatively small sample of that data.

Algorithmic
Probability is the only probability system know to be complete in this
way. As a necessary consequence of its completeness it is
*incomputable*.
The incomputability is because some algorithms — a subset of those
that
are partially recursive — can never be evaluated fully because it
would
take too long. But these programs will at least be recognized as
possible solutions. On the other hand, any *computable* system is
*incomplete*. There will always be descriptions outside that
system’s
search space which will never be acknowledged or considered, even in an
infinite amount of time. Computable prediction models hide this fact by
ignoring such algorithms.

In 1986 Ray described in the paper
*The Application of Algorithmic Probability to Problems in Artificial
Intelligence*
how Algorithmic Probability could be used in
applications to A.I. He described the search technique he had
developed. In search problems, the best order of search, is time
*T _{i}
/
P_{i}*, where

*T*is the time needed to test the trial and

_{i}*P*is the probability of success of that trial. He called this the “Conceptual Jump Size” of the problem. Leonid A. Levin’s search technique approximates this order, and so he called this search technique Lsearch.

_{i}In other papers he explored how to limit the time needed to search for solutions, writing on resource bounded search. The search space is limited by available time or computation cost rather than by cutting out search space as is done in some other prediction methods, such as Minimum Description Length.

Throughout his career Ray has been concerned with the potential benefits and dangers of A.I., discussing it in many of his published reports. In 1985 his paper

*The Time Scale of Artificial Intelligence: Reflections on Social Effects*analyzed a likely evolution of A.I., giving a formula predicting when it would reach the “Infinity Point”. This Infinity Point is an early version of the “Singularity” later made popular by Ray Kurzweil.

In 1970 Ray formed his own one man company, Oxbridge Research, and has continued his research there except for periods at other institutions such as MIT, University of Saarland in Germany, and IDSIA in Switzerland. In 2003 he was the first recipient of the Kolmogorov Award by The Computer Learning Research Center at the Royal Holloway, University of London, where he gave the inaugural Kolmogorov Lecture. He is currently visiting Professor at the CLRC.

Watch

*Algorithmic Probability, AI and NKS*. Read the full list of his publications.