Archive for the ‘bioengineering’ category

Mar 24, 2024

Study supports hypothesis that mitochondrial dysregulation is a contributor to the development of schizophrenia

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Researchers at Rutgers and Emory University are gaining insights into how schizophrenia develops by studying the strongest-known genetic risk factor.

When a small portion of chromosome 3 is missing—known as 3q29 deletion syndrome—it increases the risk for by about 40-fold.

Researchers have now analyzed overlapping patterns of altered gene activity in two models of 3q29 deletion syndrome, including mice where the deletion has been engineered in using CRIPSR, and , or three-dimensional tissue cultures used to study disease. These two systems both exhibit impaired . This dysfunction can cause energy shortfalls in the brain and result in psychiatric symptoms and disorders.

Mar 21, 2024

Bioengineering edible mycelium to enhance nutritional value, color, and flavor

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biological

In a recent study published in Nature Communications, researchers developed a modular synthetic biology toolkit for Aspergillus oryzae, an edible fungus used in fermented foods, protein production, and meat alternatives.

Study: Edible mycelium bioengineered for enhanced nutritional value and sensory appeal using a modular synthetic biology toolkit. Image Credit: Rattiya Thongdumhyu/Shutterstock.com.

Mar 20, 2024

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences: Vol 379, No 1901

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

The advent of CRISPR gene editing, along with nanopore genome sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing, has allowed the study of host-microbe interactions with newfound accuracy and power. The studies taking advantage of these tools have provided insights with never-before seen precision and, excitingly, have revealed surprising findings on principles of host-microbe interactions. This special issue reviews and interprets host immunological and developmental interactions with the resident microbiome. The articles reflect on evolutionary principles guiding how hosts interact with their commensal microbiota and offer new techniques and directions for research that we hope will advance the field in the years to come.

This issue is available to buy in print. Visit our information for readers page for purchasing options.

Mar 20, 2024

HIV in cell culture can be completely eliminated using CRISPR-Cas gene editing technology, increasing hopes of cure

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, government

New research presented early ahead of this year’s European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2024, Barcelona, 27–30 April) from a team of researchers in the Netherlands shows how the latest CRISPR-Cas gene editing technology can be used to eliminate all traces of the HIV virus from infected cells in the laboratory, raising hopes of a cure.

Mar 19, 2024

The Dawn of Precision Gene Editing with Programmable Recombinases

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

Exploring the cutting edge of genetic engineering, the development of programmable recombinases and zinc finger domains is ushering in a new era of precision in DNA manipulation. These advances enable precise genomic alterations, from single nucleotide changes to the insertion of large DNA segments, potentially transforming the landscape of therapeutic gene editing and opening new possibilities in personalised medicine.

Mar 16, 2024

UCLA’s AI wearable empowers speech for vocal cord impairments

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, robotics/AI, wearables

UCLA bioengineers create thin, flexible neck device translating larynx muscle movements into audible speech.

Mar 16, 2024

Engineering the Microbiome: CRISPR Leads the Way

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

Scientists have categorized different types of CRISPR systems into two classes based on how their Cas nucleases function. In class 1 (types I, III, and IV), different Cas proteins form a complex machinery to identify and cut foreign DNA; in class 2 CRISPR systems (types II, V, and VI), a single Cas protein effector recognizes and cleaves DNA.9

After characterizing CRISPR’s role as a defense mechanism in bacteria, researchers soon realized that they could harness this system for gene manipulation in any cell. All they needed to do was design a CRISPR gRNA sequence that bound to a specific DNA sequence and triggered the Cas nuclease, which would then cut precisely at that location. With CRISPR, researchers routinely knock out gene function by cutting out a DNA fragment, or they insert a desired genetic sequence into the genome by providing a reference DNA template along with the CRISPR components. While editing eukaryotic cells has been the focus for tackling diseases, many researchers now use CRISPR to edit bacterial communities.

“It’s almost like back to the beginning or back to the origins. There’s some irony in bringing CRISPR back to where it came from,” said Rodolphe Barrangou, a functional genomics researcher at North Carolina State University, who helped characterize the immune function of CRISPR and has been working with it for more than 20 years.

Mar 16, 2024

Nanomedicine research aims to transform treatment of aortic aneurysms

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

Nanomedicine to Cure All!

Aortic aneurysms are bulges in the aorta, the largest blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, or injury can all increase the risk of aneurysms, which tend to occur more often in Caucasian male smokers over the age of 65.

“The soft tissues that make up blood vessels act essentially like rubber bands, and it’s the elastic fibers within these tissues that allow them to stretch and snap back,” says Professor Anand Ramamurthi, chair of the Department of Bioengineering in Lehigh University’s P.C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Science. “These fibers are produced primarily before and just after birth. After that, they don’t regenerate or undergo natural repair after injury. So when they become injured or diseased, the tissue weakens and causes an aneurysm, which can grow over time. After about seven to 10 years, it typically reaches the rupture stage.”

Continue reading “Nanomedicine research aims to transform treatment of aortic aneurysms” »

Mar 9, 2024

3D Molecular Maps of the Brain: Unveiling Complexity with Spatial Omics

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, life extension, robotics/AI

“If you look at the brain chemically, it’s like a soup with a bunch of ingredients,” said Dr. Fan Lam.

Can we map the brain to show its behavior patterns when a patient is healthy and sick? This is what a recent study published in Nature Methods hopes to address as a team of researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign used a $3 million grant obtained from the National Institute of Aging to develop a novel approach to mapping brain behavior when a patient is both healthy and sick. This study holds the potential to help researchers, medical professionals, and patients better understand how to treat diseases.

“If you look at the brain chemically, it’s like a soup with a bunch of ingredients,” said Dr. Fan Lam, who is an assistant professor of bioengineering at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and a co-author on the study. “Understanding the biochemistry of the brain, how it organizes spatiotemporally, and how those chemical reactions support computing is critical to having a better idea of how the brain functions in health as well as during disease.”

Continue reading “3D Molecular Maps of the Brain: Unveiling Complexity with Spatial Omics” »

Mar 9, 2024

Novel device for stomach complaints is successful in human trial

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

An endoscopic mapping device, developed over the course of a decade by scientists at the Auckland Bioengineering Institute, consists of an inflatable sphere covered in sensors, delivered down the esophagus and able to measure electrical activity in the gut.

In the same way, abnormal heart can cause serious heart problems, research has found faulty bioelectric gut waves can lead to stomach pain, nausea, vomiting and bloating.

But often doctors can’t find out what the problem is. That’s because gut electrics aren’t nearly as strong or as easily measured as heart waves; without surgery it’s hard to know if someone has a so-called ‘dysrhythmic’ gut—and if so, where the problem is.

Page 1 of 20312345678Last