Archive for the ‘mapping’ category

Nov 16, 2022

Probing the Limits of Nuclear Existence

Posted by in categories: mapping, physics, space

Researchers have discovered the heaviest-known bound isotope of sodium and characterized other neutron-rich isotopes, offering important benchmarks for refining nuclear models.

The neutron dripline marks a boundary of nuclear existence—indicating isotopes of a given element with a maximum number of neutrons. Adding a neutron to a dripline isotope will cause the isotope to become unbound and release one or more of its neutrons. Mapping the dripline is a major goal of modern nuclear physics, as this boundary is a testing ground for nuclear models and has implications for our understanding of neutron stars and of the synthesis of elements in stellar explosions. Now studies by two groups extend our knowledge of the properties of nuclei close to the dripline [1, 2]. Working at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory (RIBF) in Japan, Deuk Soon Ahn of RIKEN and colleagues have discovered sodium-39 (39 Na), which likely marks the dripline location for the heaviest element to date (Fig. 1) [1].

Nov 15, 2022

What Is LiDAR Technology and What Are Its Main Applications?

Posted by in category: mapping

Nov 14, 2022

Computer scientists succeed in solving algorithmic riddle from the 1950s

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, mapping, mathematics

For more than half a century, researchers around the world have been struggling with an algorithmic problem known as “the single source shortest path problem.” The problem is essentially about how to devise a mathematical recipe that best finds the shortest route between a node and all other nodes in a network, where there may be connections with negative weights.

Sound complicated? Possibly. But in fact, this type of calculation is already used in a wide range of the apps and technologies that we depend upon for finding our ways around—as Google Maps guides us across landscapes and through cities, for example.

Now, researchers from the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Computer Science have succeeded in solving the single source shortest problem, a riddle that has stumped researchers and experts for decades.

Nov 14, 2022

Mapping Brain Connections Reinforces Theories On Human Cognition

Posted by in categories: mapping, neuroscience

17:12 minutes.

After decades of research using sophisticated brain imaging, there’s a growing consensus among neuroscientists that understanding the connections between brain regions may be even more important than the functions of the regions themselves. When it comes to understanding human cognition, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Nov 4, 2022

Traces of ancient ocean discovered on Mars

Posted by in categories: alien life, climatology, evolution, mapping

A recently released set of topography maps provides new evidence for an ancient northern ocean on Mars. The maps offer the strongest case yet that the planet once experienced sea-level rise consistent with an extended warm and wet climate, not the harsh, frozen landscape that exists today.

“What immediately comes to mind as one the most significant points here is that the existence of an ocean of this size means a higher potential for life,” said Benjamin Cardenas, assistant professor of geosciences at Penn State and lead author on the study recently published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.

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Nov 1, 2022

Digital mapmaking innovations are revolutionizing travel

Posted by in categories: mapping, transportation

GPS for scuba divers, cars with built-in holographic maps, and other new tech mean ’you’ll never get lost again.‘.

Oct 27, 2022

Martian Impacts Seen and Heard

Posted by in categories: mapping, space

Linking acoustic and seismic signals from meteorite strikes to orbiter images is a step toward mapping the planet’s interior.

Oct 26, 2022

Entanglement-enhanced matter-wave interferometry in a high-finesse cavity

Posted by in categories: mapping, particle physics, quantum physics

Light-pulse matter-wave interferometers exploit the quantized momentum kick given to atoms during absorption and emission of light to split atomic wave packets so that they traverse distinct spatial paths at the same time. Additional momentum kicks then return the atoms to the same point in space to interfere the two matter-wave wave packets. The key to the precision of these devices is the encoding of information in the phase ϕ that appears in the superposition of the two quantum trajectories within the interferometer. This phase must be estimated from quantum measurements to extract the desired information. For N atoms, the phase estimation is fundamentally limited by the independent quantum collapse of each atom to an r.m.s. angular uncertainty \(\Delta {\theta }_{{\rm{SQL}}}=1/\sqrt{N}\) rad, known as the standard quantum limit (SQL)2.

Here we demonstrate a matter-wave interferometer31,32 with a directly observed interferometric phase noise below the SQL, a result that combines two of the most striking features of quantum mechanics: the concept that a particle can appear to be in two places at once and entanglement between distinct particles. This work is also a harbinger of future quantum many-body simulations with cavities26,27,28,29 that will explore beyond mean-field physics by directly modifying and probing quantum fluctuations or in which the quantum measurement process induces a phase transition30.

Quantum entanglement between the atoms allows the atoms to conspire together to reduce their total quantum noise relative to their total signal1,3. Such entanglement has been generated between atoms using direct collisional33,34,35,36,37,38,39 or Coulomb40,41 interactions, including relative atom number squeezing between matter waves in spatially separated traps33,35,39 and mapping of internal entanglement onto the relative atom number in different momentum states42. A trapped matter-wave interferometer with relative number squeezing was realized in ref. 35, but the interferometer’s phase was antisqueezed and thus the phase resolution was above the SQL.

Oct 19, 2022

NASA telescope takes 12-year time-lapse movie of entire sky

Posted by in categories: entertainment, mapping, space travel

Pictures of the sky can show us cosmic wonders; movies can bring them to life. Movies from NASA’s NEOWISE space telescope are revealing motion and change across the sky.

Every six months, NASA’s Near-Earth Object Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or NEOWISE, completes one trip halfway around the Sun, taking images in all directions. Stitched together, those images form an “all-sky” map showing the location and brightness of hundreds of millions of objects. Using 18 all-sky maps produced by the spacecraft (with the 19th and 20th to be released in March 2023), scientists have created what is essentially a time-lapse movie of the sky, revealing changes that span a decade.

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Oct 16, 2022

The neural basis of syllogistic reasoning: An event-related potential study

Posted by in categories: mapping, neuroscience

The spatiotemporal analysis of brain activation during syllogistic reasoning, and the execution of 1 baseline task (BST) were performed in 14 healthy adult participants using high-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The following results were obtained: First, the valid syllogistic reasoning task (VSR) elicited a greater positive ERP deflection than the invalid syllogistic reasoning task (ISR) and BST between 300 and 400 ms after the onset of the minor premise. Dipole source analysis of the difference waves (VSR-BST and VSR-ISR) indicated that the positive components were localized in the vicinity of the occipito-temporal cortex, possibly related to visual premise processing. Second, VSR and ISR demonstrated greater negativity than BST developed at 600–700 ms. Dipole source analysis of difference waves (VSR-BST and ISR-BST) indicated that the negative components were mainly localized near the medial frontal cortex/the anterior cingulate cortex, possibly related to the manipulation and integration of premise information. Third, both VSR and ISR elicited a more positive ERP deflection than BST between 2,500 and 3,000 ms. Voltage maps of the difference waves (VSR-BST and VSR-ISR) demonstrated strong activity in the right frontal scalp regions. Results indicate that the reasoning tasks may require more mental effort to spatial processing of working memory.

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