Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category

Nov 28, 2023

Black Holes Could Be Used As Batteries Or Nuclear Reactors

Posted by in categories: cosmology, nuclear energy, particle physics

Now that’s forward thinking but it’ll be a long while. But that’s science!

Nothing escapes black holes, but over the decades researchers have worked out ways to get some energy out of them. Some happen naturally, and some energy can be stolen in clever ways. Now, researchers have worked out novel approaches to use black holes as power sources, suggesting that they can be used as either batteries or nuclear reactors.

The assumption of this study is a Schwarzschild black hole – one that has no electric charge or angular momentum. So, it’s neutral and it doesn’t spin. By dropping charged particles on it, the black holes can be made to have a static electric field – and suddenly, you have the makings of a battery.

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Nov 28, 2023

Understanding charged particles helps physicists simulate element creation in stars

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics

New research from North Carolina State University and Michigan State University opens a new avenue for modeling low-energy nuclear reactions, which are key to the formation of elements within stars. The research lays the groundwork for calculating how nucleons interact when the particles are electrically charged.

The work appears in Physical Review Letters.

Predicting the ways that —clusters of protons and neutrons, together referred to as nucleons—combine to form larger compound nuclei is an important step toward understanding how elements are formed within stars.

Nov 27, 2023

‘First Ever’ Experiments to Measure Theoretical ‘Quantum Flickering’ in an Empty Vacuum Slated for 2024

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

German researchers hoping to be the first to successfully measure quantum flickering directly in a completely empty vacuum are setting their sights on 2024.

If successful, the first-of-their-kind experiments are expected to either confirm the existence of quantum energy in the vacuum, a core concept of quantum electrodynamics (QED), or potentially result in the discovery of previously unknown laws of nature.

Quantum Flickering, Ghost Particles, and Energy in the Vacuum.

Nov 27, 2023

Using the world’s three most powerful particle accelerators to reveal the space-time geometry of quark matter

Posted by in categories: climatology, cosmology, finance, mapping, particle physics, sustainability

Physicists from the Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE) have been conducting research on the matter constituting the atomic nucleus utilizing the world’s three most powerful particle accelerators. Their focus has been on mapping the “primordial soup” that filled the universe in the first millionth of a second following its inception.

Intriguingly, their measurements showed that the movement of observed particles bears resemblance to the search for prey of marine predators, the patterns of climate change, and the fluctuations of stock market.

In the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang, temperatures were so extreme that atomic nuclei could not exists, nor could nucleons, their building blocks. Hence, in this first instance the universe was filled with a “” of quarks and gluons.

Nov 27, 2023

New study shows how heat can be used in computing

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics

Physicists at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and Central South University in China have demonstrated that, combining specific materials, heat in technical devices can be used in computing. Their discovery is based on extensive calculations and simulations. The new approach demonstrates how heat signals can be steered and amplified for use in energy-efficient data processing.

The team’s research findings have been published in the journal Advanced Electronic Materials (“PT-Symmetry Enabled Spintronic Thermal Diodes and Logic Gates.”).

Information signals are encoded as thermal spin waves (red arrows). Logical operations are realized with two magnetic strips (signal conductors) and precisely controlled with current pulses in a spacer (platinum). (Image: Berakdar group)

Nov 27, 2023

Meet Strange Metals: Where Electricity May Flow Without Electrons

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Some metals seem to carry electric currents without electrons, defying canonical understanding.

For 50 years, physicists have understood current as a flow of charged particles. But a new experiment has found that in at least one strange material, this understanding falls apart.

Nov 27, 2023

James Webb Space Telescope detects Water Vapor, Sulfur Dioxide and Sand Clouds in the Atmosphere of a nearby Exoplanet

Posted by in categories: chemistry, particle physics, space

European astronomers, co-led by researchers from the Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, used recent observations made with the James Webb Space Telescope to study the atmosphere of the nearby exoplanet WASP-107b. Peering deep into the fluffy atmosphere of WASP-107b they discovered not only water vapour and sulfur dioxide, but even silicate sand clouds. These particles reside within a dynamic atmosphere that exhibits vigorous transport of material.

Astronomers worldwide are harnessing the advanced capabilities of the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) aboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to conduct groundbreaking observations of exoplanets – planets orbiting stars other than our own Sun. One of these fascinating worlds is WASP-107b, a unique gaseous exoplanet that orbits a star slightly cooler and less massive than our Sun. The mass of the planet is similar to that of Neptune but its size is much larger than that of Neptune, almost approaching the size of Jupiter. This characteristic renders WASP-107b rather ‘fluffy’ when compared to the gas giant planets within our solar system. The fluffiness of this exoplanet enables astronomers to look roughly 50 times deeper into its atmosphere compared to the depth of exploration achieved for a solar-system giant like Jupiter.

The team of European astronomers took full advantage of the remarkable fluffiness of this exoplanet, enabling them to look deep into its atmosphere. This opportunity opened a window into unravelling the complex chemical composition of its atmosphere. The reason behind this is quite straightforward: the signals, or spectral features, are far more prominent in a less dense atmosphere compared to a more compact one. Their recent study, now published in Nature, reveals the presence of water vapour, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and silicate clouds, but notably, there is no trace of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4).

Nov 26, 2023

Two Big Bangs, One Universe: A New Study That Challenges the Standard Cosmological Model

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

In this video, we will explain a new paper that suggests that there was a second big bang, or a “Dark Big Bang”, that created different kinds of dark matter particles, some of which could be very massive. We will explain how this hypothesis could solve two of the biggest mysteries in cosmology: the origin of the universe and the nature of dark matter. We will also explain how this hypothesis could be tested by future experiments, such as gravitational wave detectors and gamma-ray telescopes. The paper offers a new perspective on the history and structure of the universe, and challenges some of the assumptions and predictions of the standard cosmological model. The paper also opens new possibilities for exploring and understanding the dark sector of the universe, which could reveal new physics and phenomena. So, stay tuned and get ready to explore the dark side of the big bang.

00:00 Introduction.
02:00 The Dark Big Bang.
03:55 The Origin of the Universe.
06:22 The Nature of Dark Matter.
08:27 Outro.
09:03 Enjoy.

Continue reading “Two Big Bangs, One Universe: A New Study That Challenges the Standard Cosmological Model” »

Nov 26, 2023

Optical trapping of optical nanoparticles: Fundamentals and applications

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics

A new article published in Opto-Electronic Science reviews the fundamentals and applications of optically trapped optical nanoparticles. Optical nanoparticles are one of the key elements of photonics. They not only allow optical imaging of a plethora of systems (from cells to microelectronics), but also behave as highly sensitive remote sensors.

The success of optical tweezers in isolating and manipulating individual optical nanoparticles has been recently demonstrated. This has opened the door to high-resolution, single-particle scanning and sensing.

The most relevant results in the quickly growing fields of optical trapping of individual optical nanoparticles are summarized by this article. According to different materials and their , the optical nanoparticles are classified into five families: , lanthanide-doped nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, and nanodiamonds. For each case, the main advances and applications have been described.

Nov 25, 2023

‘What the heck is going on?’ Extremely high-energy particle detected falling to Earth

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Astronomers have detected a rare and extremely high-energy particle falling to Earth that is causing bafflement because it is coming from an apparently empty region of space.

The particle, named Amaterasu after the sun goddess in Japanese mythology, is one of the highest-energy cosmic rays ever detected.

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