Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category

May 16, 2023

Engineering graphene-based quantum circuits with atomic precision

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, engineering, nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics, sustainability


Imagine having a building made of stacks of bricks connected by adaptable bridges. You pull a knob that modifies the bridges and the building changes functionality. Wouldn’t it be great?

A team of researchers led by Prof. Aitor Mugarza, from the Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2) and ICREA, together with Prof. Diego Peña from the Center for Research in Biological Chemistry and Molecular Materials of the University of Santiago de Campostela (CiQUS-USC), Dr. Cesar Moreno, formerly a member of ICN2’s team and currently a researcher at the University of Cantabria, and Dr. Aran Garcia-Lekue, from the Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Ikerbasque Foundation, has done something analogous, but at the single-atom scale, with the aim of synthesizing new carbon-based materials with tunable properties.

Continue reading “Engineering graphene-based quantum circuits with atomic precision” »

May 16, 2023

Researchers demonstrate electrical creation and control of antiferromagnetic vortices

Posted by in categories: computing, nanotechnology, particle physics

A new study has shown for the first time how electrical creation and control of magnetic vortices in an antiferromagnet can be achieved, a discovery that will increase the data storage capacity and speed of next generation devices.

Researchers from the University of Nottingham’s School of Physics and Astronomy have used magnetic imaging techniques to map the structure of newly formed magnetic vortices and demonstrate their back-and-forth movement due to alternating electrical pulses. Their findings have been published in Nature Nanotechnology.

“This is an exciting moment for us, these magnetic vortices have been proposed as information carriers in next-generation memory devices, but evidence of their existence in antiferromagnets has so far been scarce. Now, we have not only generated them, but also moved them in a controllable way. It’s another success for our material, CuMnAs, which has been at the center of several breakthroughs in antiferromagnetic spintronics over the last few years,” says Oliver Amin.

May 16, 2023

Watch 44 million atoms simulated using AI and a supercomputer

Posted by in categories: particle physics, robotics/AI, supercomputing

This simulation models a huge number of atoms in detail with the help of artificial intelligence.

By Alex Wilkins

May 16, 2023

Supercomputing simulations spot electron orbital signatures

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

Something not musk:

No one will ever be able to see a purely mathematical construct such as a perfect sphere. But now, scientists using supercomputer simulations and atomic resolution microscopes have imaged the signatures of electron orbitals, which are defined by mathematical equations of quantum mechanics and predict where an atom’s electron is most likely to be.

Scientists at UT Austin, Princeton University, and ExxonMobil have directly observed the signatures of electron orbitals in two different transition-metal atoms, iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) present in metal-phthalocyanines. Those signatures are apparent in the forces measured by atomic force microscopes, which often reflect the underlying orbitals and can be so interpreted.

Continue reading “Supercomputing simulations spot electron orbital signatures” »

May 16, 2023

First close-ups of a source of energetic particles expelled from the Sun

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Impulsive or Helium-3 enriched solar energetic particle (SEP) events, characterized by Helium-3 and ultra-heavy ion abundances, show high association with type III radio bursts. Minor (B-or C-class) GOES soft X-ray flares often accompany these events.

There are reports on such events measured in clusters from sub-flares in single active regions, where abundance showed significant variations. Imaging observations revealed that sources of these recurrent Helium-3 enriched are jets from solar plages (patches of scattered magnetic fields) or coronal hole edges.

From a distance of only half an astronomical unit (AU), or around 46.5 million miles, scientists from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) have made the first close-up observations of a source of energetic particles ejected from the Sun. ESA’s Solar Orbiter provided high-resolution images of the solar flare.

May 16, 2023

Quantum Experiment Shows How Einstein Was Wrong About One Thing

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Albert Einstein wasn’t entirely convinced about quantum mechanics, suggesting our understanding of it was incomplete. In particular, Einstein took issue with entanglement, the notion that a particle could be affected by another particle that wasn’t close by.

Experiments since have shown that quantum entanglement is indeed possible and that two entangled particles can be connected over a distance. Now a new experiment further confirms it, and in a way we haven’t seen before.

In the new experiment, scientists used a 30-meter-long tube cooled to close to absolute zero to run a Bell test: a random measurement on two entangled qubit (quantum bit) particles at the same time.

May 15, 2023

Google Quantum AI Breaks Ground: Unraveling the Mystery of Non-Abelian Anyons

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI

Summary: For the first time, Google Quantum AI has observed the peculiar behavior of non-Abelian anyons, particles with the potential to revolutionize quantum computing by making operations more resistant to noise.

Non-Abelian anyons have the unique feature of retaining a sort of memory, allowing us to determine when they have been exchanged, even though they are identical.

The team successfully used these anyons to perform quantum computations, opening a new path towards topological quantum computation. This significant discovery could be instrumental in the future of fault-tolerant topological quantum computing.

May 15, 2023

The Most Beautiful Strongly Bound Dibaryon

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

Dibaryons are subatomic particles composed of two baryons. Their formation, which occurs through interactions between baryons, is fundamental in big-bang nucleosynthesis, nuclear reactions including those happening within stars, and bridges the gap between nuclear physics, cosmology, and astrophysics. Fascinatingly, the strong force, responsible for the formation and the majority of the mass of nuclei, facilitates the formation of a plethora of different dibaryons with diverse quark combinations.

Nevertheless, these dibaryons are not commonly observed — the deuteron is currently the only known stable dibaryon.

To resolve this apparent dichotomy, it is essential to investigate dibaryons and baryon-baryon interactions at the fundamental level of strong interactions. In a recent publication in Physical Review Letters.

May 14, 2023

Sunspot explosion blasts out M-class solar flares! Causes radio blackout in USA

Posted by in categories: entertainment, particle physics

The possibility of the Sun causing catastrophic damage on Earth might seem something out of a science-fiction film, but this threat is very true. One of the best examples of Solar activity harming Earth was provided by the Roland Emmerich film 2012. It depicted the apocalypse prophesied by the Mayans many centuries ago. The storyline of the movie revolved around the Sun emitting unstable neutrinos because of anomalous energy processes, which were causing the Earth’s core to heat up and eventually lead to its destruction.

Although the ‘science’ part of the film was a bit over the top, the threat posed by the Sun could cause significant damage on Earth, and a recent solar flare impact gave us a hint of the Sun’s mighty power.

According to a report by spaceweather.com, a Reversed-polarity sunspot, given the designation AR3296, exploded on the Sun, blasting out dangerous solar flares directly towards Earth yesterday, May 7. Forecasters at NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) revealed that this explosion on the solar surface produced a M1.5-class solar flare which lasted for a substantial amount of time.

May 14, 2023

Characterizing Clusters in Nuclear Collisions

Posted by in categories: nuclear energy, particle physics

When two helium-4 (4He) nuclei smash together, they form a beryllium-8 nucleus. A third 4 He striking this nucleus may result in an excited form of carbon-12 (12 C), with the 4 He particles arranging in a neat cluster. Clustering of neutrons and protons during high-energy collisions is known to determine the stability of the collision products. But how clustering affects the dynamics and reaction outcomes of high-energy collisions remains an open question. Now Catalin Frosin of the University of Florence, Italy, and his colleagues report experimental data that detail how reaction products form during this kind of collision [1]. The results support models that suggest increased collision energy can drive clustering activity and result in emission of lighter, more energetic particles.

The experiments entail bombarding 12 C targets with pulsed beams of sulfur-32 and neon-20. Frosin and his colleagues characterized the resulting fragments using FAZIA, a detector designed to probe charged particles around the Fermi energy. Meanwhile, the team ran simulations, with and without cluster correlations, to predict the nucleon interactions and the decays of unstable products. Models with clustering produced particles that are more energetic—in agreement with the experimental data. The researchers attributed this effect to energy and momentum conservation in the nucleon–nucleon and nucleon–cluster collisions during the early, dynamic phase of the interaction.

The findings demonstrate FAZIA’s capability to extract precise information about the properties of nuclear fragments. The researchers say that similar experiments performed elsewhere looked only at carbon+carbon reactions. Extending them to heavier reactants provides a wider arena for interpreting fragmentation mechanisms.

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