Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category

Aug 6, 2022

Scientists Find a Key Brain Difference Between Primates and Other Animals

Posted by in category: neuroscience

A multinational research team has now been able to increase their understanding of species-specific variations in the architecture of cortical neurons thanks to high-resolution microscopy.

Researchers from the Developmental Neurobiology research group at Ruhr-Universität Bochum, led by Professor Petra Wahle, have demonstrated that primates and non-primates differ in an important aspect of their architecture: the origin of the axon, which is the process responsible for the transmission of electrical signals known as action potentials. The results were recently published in the journal eLife.

Aug 6, 2022

Neocortical pyramidal neurons with axons emerging from dendrites are frequent in non-primates, but rare in monkey and human

Posted by in categories: chemistry, neuroscience

Archived histological material from tracing studies, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi impregnations allowed to discover a so far unrecognized structural difference, potentially of functional importance, between neocortical pyramidal neurons of rodent, carnivore, and ungulate as compared to monkey and man.

Aug 5, 2022

New Insights Into Retinal Neurons

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: Researchers have identified a new type of retinal ganglion cells.

Source: Northwestern University.

Northwestern Medicine investigators have identified a new type of retinal ganglion cell, the neurons in the retina that encode the visual environment and transmit information back to the brain, according to a study published in Neuron.

Aug 5, 2022

To Better Understand the Brain, Look at the Bigger Picture

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Summary: Zooming out to image larger areas of the brain while using fMRI technology allows researchers to capture additional relevant information, offering a better understanding of neural interplay.

Source: Yale.

Researchers have learned a lot about the human brain through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a technique that can yield insight into brain function. But typical fMRI methods may be missing key information and providing only part of the picture, Yale researchers say.

Aug 4, 2022

The Human Mind Is Not Meant to Be Awake After Midnight, Scientists Warn

Posted by in category: neuroscience

In the middle of the night, the world can sometimes feel like a dark place. Under the cover of darkness, negative thoughts have a way of drifting through your mind, and as you lie awake, staring at the ceiling, you might start craving guilty pleasures, like a cigarette or a carb-heavy meal.

Plenty of evidence suggests the human mind functions differently if it is awake at nighttime. Past midnight, negative emotions tend to draw our attention more than positive ones, dangerous ideas grow in appeal and inhibitions fall away.

Some researchers think the human circadian rhythm is heavily involved in these critical changes in function, as they outline in a new paper summarizing the evidence of how brain systems function differently after dark.

Continue reading “The Human Mind Is Not Meant to Be Awake After Midnight, Scientists Warn” »

Aug 4, 2022

Scientists Uncover the Secret of Brain Cancer’s ‘Immortality Switch’

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, life extension, neuroscience

Circa 2018

New research has opened doors to using the gene-editing tool CRISPR to stop cancer cells from dividing indefinitely.

Continue reading “Scientists Uncover the Secret of Brain Cancer’s ‘Immortality Switch’” »

Aug 4, 2022

Keith Camhi — Techstars Future of Longevity Accelerator — Innovative Solutions For Older Adults

Posted by in categories: business, computing, engineering, finance, life extension, neuroscience

Innovative Solutions For Unmet Needs Of Older Adults & Their Caregivers — Keith Camhi, Managing Director, Techstars Future of Longevity Accelerator — A Partnership With Melinda Gates Pivotal Ventures.

Keith Camhi is Managing Director, Techstars Future of Longevity Accelerator (https://www.techstars.com/accelerators/longevity), a program, run in partnership with Pivotal Ventures (https://www.pivotalventures.org/), an investment and incubation company created by Melinda French Gates, focusing on innovative solutions to address the unmet needs of older adults and their caregivers. The longevity accelerator core program themes include: Caregiver Support, Care Coordination, Aging in Place, Financial Wellness and Resilience, Preventive Health (both Physical and Cognitive), and Social Engagement.

Continue reading “Keith Camhi — Techstars Future of Longevity Accelerator — Innovative Solutions For Older Adults” »

Aug 4, 2022

Stroke drug improves memory and repairs injured brain tissue in mice

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Unlike existing treatments that focus on rehabilitation or reducing the risk of an additional stroke, the experimental drug targets the “stickiness” that can prevent injured brain tissue from functioning as it should.

Aug 4, 2022

A ‘Reversible’ Form of Death? Scientists Revive Cells in Dead Pigs’ Organs

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Researchers who previously revived some brain cells in dead pigs succeeded in repeating the process in more organs.

Aug 3, 2022

Prenatal environmental stressors impair postnatal microglia function and adult behavior in males

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Block et al. show that combined exposure to air pollution and maternal stress during pregnancy activates the maternal immune system and induces male-specific impairments in social behavior and circuit connectivity in offspring. Cellularly, prenatal stressors diminish microglia phagocytic function,…

The serotonin hypothesis of depression is still influential. We aimed to synthesise and evaluate evidence on whether depression is associated with lowered serotonin concentration or activity in a systematic umbrella review of the principal relevant areas of research. PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched using terms appropriate to each area of research, from their inception until December 2020. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and large data-set analyses in the following areas were identified: serotonin and serotonin metabolite, 5-HIAA, concentrations in body fluids; serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding; serotonin transporter (SERT) levels measured by imaging or at post-mortem; tryptophan depletion studies; SERT gene associations and SERT gene-environment interactions. Studies of depression associated with physical conditions and specific subtypes of depression (e.g.

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