Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category

Apr 29, 2023

The Neuroscience of Real Life Monsters: Psychopaths, CEOs, & Politicians (Science on Tap Livestream)

Posted by in categories: biological, ethics, genetics, neuroscience, science

Why do some people live lawful lives, while others gravitate toward repeated criminal behavior? Do people choose to be moral or immoral, or is morality simply a genetically inherited function of the brain? Research suggests that psychopathy as a biological condition explained by defective neural circuits that mediate empathy, but what does that mean when neuroscience is used as evidence in criminal court? How can understanding neuroscience give us an insight into the actions and behaviors of our political leaders?

Forensic psychiatrist Dr. Octavio Choi https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/ochoi will explore how emerging neuroscience challenges long-held assumptions underlying the basis—and punishment—of criminal behavior.

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Apr 29, 2023

Children and Adults Process Social Interactions Differently: Study Reveals Key Differences in Brain Activation

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Lead author Jon Walbrin explains, “Most previous social neuroscience studies have focused on measuring responses to other people as individuals. But more recently there has been an increased interest in understanding brain responses to others in the context of social interactions. However, very little is currently known about how such responses develop during childhood.”

“These results suggest that children and adults might employ different strategies for interaction understanding: Adults rely more on observable, body-based information, while children—with less social experience—engage more in effortful reasoning about what others are thinking and feeling during an interaction. This likely reflects the process of learning to understand interactive behavior.”

Apr 29, 2023

Structured exploration allows biological brains to learn faster than AI, suggests study

Posted by in categories: biological, neuroscience, robotics/AI

Neuroscientists have uncovered how exploratory actions enable animals to learn their spatial environment more efficiently. Their findings could help build better AI agents that can learn faster and require less experience.

Researchers at the Sainsbury Wellcome Center and Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit at UCL found the instinctual exploratory runs that animals carry out are not random. These purposeful actions allow mice to learn a map of the world efficiently. The study, published today, April 28, in Neuron, describes how neuroscientists tested their hypothesis that the specific exploratory actions that animals undertake, such as darting quickly towards objects, are important in helping them learn how to navigate their environment.

“There are a lot of theories in psychology about how performing certain actions facilitates learning. In this study, we tested whether simply observing obstacles in an environment was enough to learn about them, or if purposeful, sensory-guided actions help animals build a cognitive map of the world,” said Professor Tiago Branco, Group Leader at the Sainsbury Wellcome Center and corresponding author on the paper.

Apr 29, 2023

Time Perception & Entrainment

Posted by in categories: chemistry, neuroscience, time travel

In this episode, I discuss how our brain and body track time and the role that neurochemicals, in particular dopamine and serotonin, but also hormones such as melatonin, allow us to orient ourselves in time. I review the three types of time perception: of the past, of the present, and the future, and how dopamine and serotonin adjust both our perception of the speed of the passage of time and our memory of how long previous experiences lasted. I also discuss circannual entrainment, which is the process by which our brain and body are matched to the seasons, and circadian (24 hours) entrainment, both of which subconsciously adjust our perceived measurement of time. I explain the mechanisms of that subconscious control. And I cover the ultradian (90 minutes) rhythms that govern our ability to focus, including how to track when these 90-minute rhythms begin and end for the sake of work and productivity. I include ten tools based on the science of time perception that you can apply to enhance productivity, creativity, and relationships in various contexts.

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Apr 29, 2023

Newly discovered electrical activity within cells could change the way researchers think about biological chemistry

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, neuroscience

The human body relies heavily on electrical charges. Lightning-like pulses of energy fly through the brain and nerves and most biological processes depend on electrical ions traveling across the membranes of each cell in our body.

These are possible, in part, because of an imbalance in electrical charges that exists on either side of a cellular membrane. Until recently, researchers believed the membrane was an essential component to creating this imbalance. But that thought was turned on its head when researchers at Stanford University discovered that similar imbalanced electrical charges can exist between microdroplets of water and air.

Now, researchers at Duke University have discovered that these types of electric fields also exist within and around another type of cellular structure called biological condensates. Like oil droplets floating in water, these structures exist because of differences in density. They form compartments inside the cell without needing the physical boundary of a membrane.

Apr 28, 2023

The sapient paradox: With brains like ours, why did prehistoric humans wait millennia to start civilization?

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Neuroscientists and archeologists have wrestled with the Sapient Paradox for decades. Can collective learning be the solution?

Apr 28, 2023

Peter Gabriel — We Do What We’re Told / Milgram’s 37 (Extended CubCut)

Posted by in category: neuroscience

Mind control.

Peter Gabriel — We Do What We’re Told / Milgram’s 37
(Extended CubCut)
complete The Wave rearView:

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Apr 28, 2023

Scientists discover never-before-seen brain wave after reading octopuses’ minds

Posted by in category: neuroscience

By surgically attaching electrodes to octopuses, researchers have been able to peer inside the cephalopods’ minds for the very first time.

Apr 28, 2023

What you eat can reprogram your genes

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, life extension, neuroscience

People typically think of food as calories, energy and sustenance. However, the latest evidence suggests that food also “talks” to our genome, which is the genetic blueprint that directs the way the body functions down to the cellular level.

This communication between food and genes may affect your health, physiology and longevity. The idea that food delivers important messages to an animal’s genome is the focus of a field known as nutrigenomics. This is a discipline still in its infancy, and many questions remain cloaked in mystery. Yet already, we researchers have learned a great deal about how food components affect the genome.

I am a molecular biologist who researches the interactions among food, genes and brains in the effort to better understand how food messages affect our biology. The efforts of scientists to decipher this transmission of information could one day result in healthier and happier lives for all of us. But until then, has unmasked at least one important fact: Our relationship with food is far more intimate than we ever imagined.

Apr 28, 2023

Identification of DNA Methylation Markers in Newborns for Increased Schizophrenia Risk

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Researchers identified DNA methylation markers that may indicate the risk of developing schizophrenia later in life in newborns. This breakthrough discovery could allow for early detection and intervention to reduce the impact of the disease. By studying blood samples collected at birth, the team was able to identify unique methylation differences in cell types that could become potential clinical biomarkers for future early detection of schizophrenia.

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