Archive for the ‘bioengineering’ category: Page 6

Nov 11, 2023

What If We Became A Type I Civilization? 15 Predictions

Posted by in categories: augmented reality, bioengineering, biological, genetics, Ray Kurzweil, robotics/AI, singularity, transhumanism

This video explores what life would be like if we became a Type I Civilization. Watch this next video about the Technological Singularity: https://youtu.be/yHEnKwSUzAE.
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• The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (Ray Kurzweil): https://amzn.to/3ftOhXI
• The Future of Humanity (Michio Kaku): https://amzn.to/3Gz8ffA

Continue reading “What If We Became A Type I Civilization? 15 Predictions” »

Nov 9, 2023

Scientists use quantum biology, AI to sharpen genome editing tool

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, quantum physics, robotics/AI

Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have used their expertise in quantum biology, artificial intelligence and bioengineering to improve how CRISPR Cas9 genome editing tools work on organisms like microbes that can be modified to produce renewable fuels and chemicals.

CRISPR is a powerful tool for bioengineering, used to modify to improve an organism’s performance or to correct mutations. The CRISPR Cas9 tool relies on a single, unique guide RNA that directs the Cas9 enzyme to bind with and cleave the corresponding targeted site in the genome.

Existing models to computationally predict effective guide RNAs for CRISPR tools were built on data from only a few model species, with weak, inconsistent efficiency when applied to microbes.

Nov 8, 2023

New 3D printing approach offers hope for brain injury repair

Posted by in categories: 3D printing, bioengineering, biotech/medical, neuroscience

The University of Oxford researchers for the first time showcased that neural cells can be 3D printed to replicate the structure of the brain’s outer layer: the cerebral cortex.

In a significant breakthrough, scientists have created brain tissue using human stem cells through 3D printing. This advancement holds promise for potential future applications in treating brain injuries.

For the first time, the University of Oxford researchers showcased that neural cells can be 3D printed to replicate the structure of the brain’s outer layer: the cerebral cortex.

Continue reading “New 3D printing approach offers hope for brain injury repair” »

Nov 7, 2023

Softbotics and the Past: Engineering the Movement of 450-Million-Year-Old Organisms

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biological, cyborgs, robotics/AI, transhumanism

A recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences examines the use of Softbotics to mimic the movements of the ancient marine organism, pleurocystitid, which is estimated to have existed approximately 450 million years ago and is believed to be one of the first marine invertebrates to control their movements with a muscular stem. This study was led by researchers from Carnegie Mellon University and holds the potential to help scientists use a new field known as Paleobionics to better understand the evolutionary history of extinct organisms with paleontological evidence.

Image of a Pleurocystitid fossil (inset) and the pleurocystitid robot replica developed for the study. (Credit: Carnegie Mellon University College of Engineering)

“Softbotics is another approach to inform science using soft materials to construct flexible robot limbs and appendages,” said Dr. Carmel Majidi, who is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University and lead author of the study. “Many fundamental principles of biology and nature can only fully be explained if we look back at the evolutionary timeline of how animals evolved. We are building robot analogues to study how locomotion has changed.”

Nov 7, 2023

Engineered Immune Cell Improves Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

Cancer is a malignant disease referring to the uncontrollable proliferation of mutated cells. Millions of individuals are affected by cancer each year in the United States alone. Unfortunately, treatment is limited due to the heterogeneity of the disease and different components, which drive the disease to progress. The proliferation of cells can occur anywhere in the body including different organs such as breast, lung, pancreas, and head and neck. Cancer can also affect the reproductive tract in both men and women including the testes and ovaries, respectively. Particularly, ovarian cancer is linked with breast cancer and can result in infertility due to late detection. Due to limited therapeutic efficacy in ovarian cancer, more research is necessary for a meaningful solution. Different groups are working to more effectively target ovarian cancer through different biologic approaches.

Dr. David B. Weiner and his team from the Wistar Institute recently published an article in Science Advances demonstrating enhanced immunotherapeutic effects in ovarian cancer patients. Immunotherapy refers to a form of cancer therapy that directs the immune system to attack the tumor. In many immunotherapies, immune cells, such as T cells, are activated to kill tumors. This is a unique approach to target cancer compared to chemotherapy or radiation, which tries to directly kill tumor cells and elicit an immune response. Immunotherapy allows the immune system to recognize the tumor and react through the body’s immune system. One prominent immune cell includes natural killer (NK) cells which responsible for initial lying or killing of foreign particles. Novel work has tried to engineer NK cells to target tumors by recognizing unique receptors on its surface.

Weiner’s team and collaborator, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, have engineered monoclonal antibodies to engage NK cells to lyse cancer. Interestingly, the team demonstrated this immunotherapeutic regimen optimized preclinical output in mice when combined with checkpoint inhibitors, another type of immunotherapy. The group engineered antibodies to target a glyco-immune marker on most NK cells referred to as Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectin (Siglec-7). The novel combination strategy targets NK cells through Siglec-7 and T cells to optimize immune response against tumor cells. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting Siglec-7 allows NK cells to become activated and kill ovarian cancer cells without killing non-cancer cells, which improve specificity and reduce toxicity for patients. Consequently, this antibody resulted in generating a new class of NK cell engagers (NKCE).

Nov 6, 2023

DNA repair discovery might improve biotechnology: Research

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, health

Washington [US], March 5 (ANI): A team of researchers from Michigan State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine made a discovery that may have significance for therapeutic gene editing strategies, cancer diagnostics and therapies and other advancements in biotechnology. Kathy Meek, a professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine, and collaborators at Cambridge University and the National Institutes of Health have uncovered a previously unknown aspect of how DNA double-stranded breaks are repaired.

A large protein kinase called DNA-PK starts the DNA repair process; in their new report, two distinct DNA-PK protein complexes are characterized, each of which has a specific role in DNA repair that cannot be assumed by the other.

“It still gives me chills,” says Meek. “I don’t think anyone would have predicted this.”

Nov 4, 2023

Re-Engineered Pseudoviruses for Precise and Robust 3D Mapping of Viral Infection

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics

Engineered vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyping offers an essential method for exploring virus–cell interactions, particularly for viruses that require high biosafety levels. Although this approach has been employed effectively, the current methodologies for virus visualization and labeling can interfere with infectivity and lead to misinterpretation of results. In this study, we introduce an innovative approach combining genetic code expansion (GCE) and click chemistry with pseudotyped VSV to produce highly fluorescent and infectious pseudoviruses (clickVSVs). These clickVSVs enable robust and precise virus–cell interaction studies without compromising the biological function of the viral surface proteins. We evaluated this approach by generating VSVs bearing a unique chemical handle for click labeling and assessing the infectivity in relevant cell lines.

Nov 3, 2023

Lipid Nanoparticle-Mediated Hit-and-Run Approaches Yield Efficient and Safe In Situ Gene Editing in Human Skin

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics, nanotechnology

Despite exciting advances in gene editing, the efficient delivery of genetic tools to extrahepatic tissues remains challenging. This holds particularly true for the skin, which poses a highly restrictive delivery barrier. In this study, we ran a head-to-head comparison between Cas9 mRNA or ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) to deliver gene editing tools into epidermal layers of human skin, aiming for in situ gene editing. We observed distinct LNP composition and cell-specific effects such as an extended presence of RNP in slow-cycling epithelial cells for up to 72 h. While obtaining similar gene editing rates using Cas9 RNP and mRNA with MC3-based LNPs (10–16%), mRNA-loaded LNPs proved to be more cytotoxic. Interestingly, ionizable lipids with a p Ka ∼ 7.1 yielded superior gene editing rates (55%–72%) in two-dimensional (2D) epithelial cells while no single guide RNA-dependent off-target effects were detectable. Unexpectedly, these high 2D editing efficacies did not translate to actual skin tissue where overall gene editing rates between 5%–12% were achieved after a single application and irrespective of the LNP composition. Finally, we successfully base-corrected a disease-causing mutation with an efficacy of ∼5% in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis patient cells, showcasing the potential of this strategy for the treatment of monogenic skin diseases. Taken together, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an in situ correction of disease-causing mutations in the skin that could provide effective treatment and potentially even a cure for rare, monogenic, and common skin diseases.

Nov 2, 2023

‘Plug and play’ nanoparticles could make it easier to tackle various biological targets

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, life extension, nanotechnology

Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed modular nanoparticles that can be easily customized to target different biological entities such as tumors, viruses or toxins. The surface of the nanoparticles is engineered to host any biological molecules of choice, making it possible to tailor the nanoparticles for a wide array of applications, ranging from targeted drug delivery to neutralizing biological agents.

The beauty of this technology lies in its simplicity and efficiency. Instead of crafting entirely new for each specific application, researchers can now employ a modular nanoparticle base and conveniently attach proteins targeting a desired biological entity.

In the past, creating distinct nanoparticles for different biological targets required going through a different synthetic process from start to finish each time. But with this new technique, the same modular nanoparticle base can be easily modified to create a whole set of specialized nanoparticles.

Nov 1, 2023

At Abundance 360, David Sinclair made quite a number of encouraging comments about the future of aging research, including methods of resetting epigenetics to a youthful state

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics, life extension, Peter Diamandis, robotics/AI

Emmett Short discusses these comments on this episode of Lifespan News.

But first, the mad scientist David Sinclair, this time with Peter Diamandis at Abundance 360, giving more details into human trials for the genetic engineering side of the technology versus the chemical and pill side of the technology. Which would you want more? We’ll also hear David’s thoughts on how AI will affect the advancement of this tech. Spoiler: A lot. I’m going to play the best parts and add my commentary along the way.

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