Archive for the ‘bioengineering’ category: Page 7

Nov 1, 2023

New NK cell engaging immunotherapy approaches to target and potentially treat recalcitrant ovarian cancer

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

The Wistar Institute’s David B. Weiner and collaborators have engineered novel monoclonal antibodies that engage natural killer (NK) cells through a unique surface receptor that activates the immune system to fight against cancer.

In their publication titled, “Siglec-7 glyco-immune binding MAbs or NK cell engager biologics induce potent anti-tumor immunity against ,” published in Science Advances, the team demonstrates the preclinical feasibility of utilizing these new cancer immunotherapeutic approaches against diverse ovarian cancer types, including treatment-resistant and refractory ovarian cancers—alone or in combination with checkpoint inhibitor treatment.

The research started as a collaboration between Wistar’s Drs. Weiner and Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, who were exploring the development of new glyco-signaling biologic tools that may be important in the fight against cancer.

Nov 1, 2023

CRISPR, Vertex gene editing therapy gets warm response from FDA panel

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical

An FDA advisory panel tended to embrace a new gene therapy treatment from Vertex and CRISPR for sickle cell anemia on Tuesday.

Oct 30, 2023

Extracellular Matrix-Based Biomaterials for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, life extension

Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering strategies have made remarkable progress in remodeling, replacing, and regenerating damaged cardiovascular tissues. The design of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with appropriate biochemical and mechanical characteristics is critical for engineering tissue-engineered replacements. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic scaffolding structure characterized by tissue-specific biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical properties that modulates cellular behavior and activates highly regulated signaling pathways. In light of technological advancements, biomaterial-based scaffolds have been developed that better mimic physiological ECM properties, provide signaling cues that modulate cellular behavior, and form functional tissues and organs.

Oct 28, 2023

A new cure for sickle cell disease may be coming. FDA advisers will review it next week

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

The only cure for painful sickle cell disease today is a bone marrow transplant. But soon there may be a new cure that attacks the disorder at its genetic source.

On Tuesday, advisers to the Food and Drug Administration will review a gene therapy for the inherited blood disorder, which in the U.S. mostly affects Black people. Issues they will consider include whether more research is needed into possible unintended consequences of the treatment.

If approved by the FDA, it would be the first gene therapy on the U.S. market based on CRISPR, the gene editing tool that won its inventors the Nobel Prize in 2020.

Oct 27, 2023

New software tool provides a way for safer design of genome editing

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, food, genetics

A team of researchers has developed a software tool called DANGER (Deleterious and ANticipatable Guides Evaluated by RNA-sequencing) analysis that provides a way for the safer design of genome editing in all organisms with a transcriptome. For about a decade, researchers have used the CRISPR technology for genome editing. However, there are some challenges in the use of CRISPR. The DANGER analysis overcomes these challenges and allows researchers to perform safer on-and off-target assessments without a reference genome. It holds the potential for applications in medicine, agriculture, and biological research.

Their work is published in the journal Bioinformatics Advances on August 23, 2023.

Genome editing, or gene editing, refers to technologies that allow researchers to change the genomic DNA of an organism. With these technologies, researchers can add, remove or alter genetic material in the genome.

Oct 24, 2023

Newly Found Pandoraviruses Hint at a Fourth Branch of Life

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, food

This exemplary virus makes its own genes which many have theories say that it could be a direct relationship to the sorta alien ant farm we are currently in on earth. That maybe it is a clue that viruses started all life from a sorta panspermia whether it was from meteorites or even direct gene engineering from aliens this virus gives us a clue even to our evolutionary processes that we could even become aliens someday.

Pandoraviruses, the largest viruses ever found, are shaking up the tree of life. Could they and other abnormally large viruses belong to a fourth branch of life separate from Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes?

Oct 20, 2023

Creating Sapient Technology and Cyborg Rights Should Happen Soon

Posted by in categories: 3D printing, bioengineering, bioprinting, biotech/medical, cyborgs, existential risks, genetics, robotics/AI, transhumanism

Here’s my latest Opinion piece just out for Newsweek…focusing on cyborg rights.

Over the past half-century, the microprocessor’s capacity has doubled approximately every 18–24 months, and some experts predict that by 2030, machine intelligence could surpass human capabilities. The question then arises: When machines reach human-level intelligence, should they be granted protection and rights? Will they desire and perhaps even demand such rights?

Beyond advancements in microprocessors, we’re witnessing breakthroughs in genetic editing, stem cells, and 3D bioprinting, all which also hold the potential to help create cyborg entities displaying consciousness and intelligence. Notably, Yale University’s experiments stimulating dead pig brains have ignited debates in the animal rights realm, raising questions about the ethical implications of reviving consciousness.

Continue reading “Creating Sapient Technology and Cyborg Rights Should Happen Soon” »

Oct 20, 2023

Scientists develop deep learning-based biosensing platform to better count viral particles

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, particle physics, robotics/AI

Recent studies have found that Gires-Tournois (GT) biosensors, a type of nanophotonic resonator, can detect minuscule virus particles and produce colorful micrographs (images taken through a microscope) of viral loads. But they suffer from visual artifacts and non-reproducibility, limiting their utilization.

In a recent breakthrough, an international team of researchers, led by Professor Young Min Song from the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in Korea, has leveraged artificial intelligence (AI) to overcome this problem. Their work was published in Nano Today.

Rapid and on-site diagnostic technologies for identifying and quantifying viruses are essential for planning treatment strategies for infected patients and preventing further spread of the infection. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for accurate yet decentralized that do not involve complex and time-consuming processes needed for conventional laboratory-based tests.

Oct 16, 2023

Incredible Minds: The Collective Intelligence of Cells During Morphogenesis with Dr. Michael Levin

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, ethics, genetics, life extension, robotics/AI

The Collective Intelligence of Cells During Morphogenesis: What Bioelectricity Outside the Brain Means for Understanding our Multiscale Nature with Michael Levin — Incredible Minds.

Recorded: April 29, 2023.

Continue reading “Incredible Minds: The Collective Intelligence of Cells During Morphogenesis with Dr. Michael Levin” »

Oct 14, 2023

Engineered Probiotic Bacteria Colonize Tumors, Attract CAR-T Cells

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

Researchers at Columbia University have developed a probiotic-guided chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T platform that uses engineered bacteria to infiltrate and produce synthetic antigen targets, enabling CAR-T cells to find, identify, and destroy tumor cells in situ. The results of in vivo preclinical tests suggest that the combined ProCAR cell therapy platform could expand the scope of CAR-T cell therapy to include difficult-to-target solid tumors.

Tal Danino, PhD, and Rosa L. Vincent, PhD, at Columbia University’s department of biomedical engineering, and colleagues, reported on their developments in Science, in a paper titled “Probiotic-guided CAR-T cells for solid tumor targeting,” in which they concluded, “These findings highlight the potential of the ProCAR platform to address the roadblock of identifying suitable CAR targets by providing an antigen that is orthogonal to both healthy tissue and tumor genetics … Overall, combining the advantages of tumor-homing bacteria and CAR-T cells provides a new strategy for tumor recognition and, in turn, builds the foundation for engineered communities of living therapies.”

Immunotherapies using CAR-T cells have proven successful in treating some types of blood cancers, but their efficacy against solid tumors remains elusive. A key challenge facing tumor-antigen targeting immunotherapies like CAR-T is the identification of suitable targets that are specifically and uniformly expressed on solid tumors, the authors noted. “A key challenge of antigen-targeted cell therapies relates to the expression patterns of the antigen itself, which makes the identification of optimal targets for solid tumor cell therapies an obstacle for the development of new CARs.” Solid tumors express heterogeneous and nonspecific antigens and are poorly infiltrated by T cells. As a result, the approach carries a high risk of fatal on-target, off-tumor toxicity, wherein CAR-T cells attack the targeted antigen on healthy vital tissues with potentially fatal effects.

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