Archive for the ‘biological’ category: Page 5

May 16, 2022

A perspective on the study of artificial and biological neural networks

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

Evolution, the process by which living organisms adapt to their surrounding environment over time, has been widely studied over the years. As first hypothesized by Darwin in the mid 1800s, research evidence suggests that most biological species, including humans, continuously adapt to new environmental circumstances and that this ultimately enables their survival.

In recent years, researchers have been developing advanced computational techniques based on artificial neural networks, which are architectures inspired by in the . Models based on artificial neural networks are trained to optimize millions of synaptic weights over millions of observations in order to make accurate predictions or classify data.

Researchers at Princeton University have recently carried out a study investigating the similarities and differences between artificial and biological neural networks from an evolutionary standpoint. Their paper, published in Neuron, compares the evolution of biological neural networks with that of artificial ones using psychology theory.

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May 13, 2022

Researchers invent world’s smallest biomechanical linkage

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, engineering

Researchers at Princeton University have built the world’s smallest mechanically interlocked biological structure, a deceptively simple two-ring chain made from tiny strands of amino acids called peptides.

In a published August 23 in Nature Chemistry, the team detailed a library of such structures made in their lab—two interlocked rings, a ring on a dumbbell, a daisy chain and an interlocked double lasso—each around one billionth of a meter in size. The study also demonstrates that some of these structures can toggle between at least two shapes, laying the groundwork for a biomolecular switch.

“We’ve been able to build a bunch of structures that no one’s been able to build before,” said A. James Link, professor of chemical and , the study’s principal investigator. “These are the smallest threaded or interlocking structures you can make out of peptides.”

May 12, 2022

The origin of life: A paradigm shift

Posted by in categories: biological, evolution, genetics

According to a new concept by LMU chemists led by Thomas Carell, it was a novel molecular species composed out of RNA and peptides that set in motion the evolution of life into more complex forms.

Investigating the question as to how life could emerge long ago on the early Earth is one of the most fascinating challenges for science. Which conditions must have prevailed for the basic building blocks of more complex life to form? One of the main answers is based upon the so-called RNA world idea, which molecular biology pioneer Walter Gilbert formulated in 1986. The hypothesis holds that nucleotides—the basic building blocks of the nucleic acids A, C, G, and U—emerged out of the primordial soup, and that short RNA molecules then formed out of the nucleotides. These so-called oligonucleotides were already capable of encoding small amounts of genetic information.

As such single-stranded RNA molecules could also combine into double strands, however, this gave rise to the theoretical possibility that the molecules could replicate themselves—i.e. reproduce. Only two nucleotides fit together in each case, meaning that one strand is the exact counterpart of another and thus forms the template for another strand.

May 12, 2022

Scientists successfully grow plants in Moon soil

Posted by in categories: biological, space

For the first time ever, scientists have successfully grown plants in soil from the Moon.

Researchers from the University of Florida planted seeds from the Arabidopsis plant — commonly known as thale cress — into a few teaspoons worth of lunar soil collected in the late 60s and early 70s during the Apollo 11, 12 and 17 missions.

After about a week of watering and feeding, the seeds grew into and out of the soil, or lunar regolith, according to a paper detailing the experiment published Thursday in the scientific journal “Communications Biology.”

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May 12, 2022

Algae-powered computing: Scientists create reliable and renewable biological photovoltaic cell

Posted by in categories: biological, computing, internet

Researchers have used a widespread species of blue-green algae to power a microprocessor continuously for a year—and counting—using nothing but ambient light and water. Their system has potential as a reliable and renewable way to power small devices.

The system, comparable in size to an AA battery, contains a type of non-toxic algae called Synechocystis that naturally harvests energy from the sun through photosynthesis. The tiny electrical current this generates then interacts with an aluminum electrode and is used to power a microprocessor.

The system is made of common, inexpensive and largely . This means it could easily be replicated hundreds of thousands of times to power large numbers of small devices as part of the Internet of Things. The researchers say it is likely to be most useful in off-grid situations or , where small amounts of power can be very beneficial.

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May 10, 2022

Algae ponds could sequester gigatons of carbon

Posted by in category: biological

A new method of carbon capture is being developed using microalgae grown in open-air, pond-based systems on coastal desert land. This can be achieved without the need for fresh water.

May 9, 2022

Electron Motion Tracked in a Quantum State of Matter Using X-Ray Pulses Less Than a Millionth of a Billionth of a Second Long

Posted by in categories: biological, chemistry, quantum physics, solar power, sustainability

Less than a millionth of a billionth of a second long, attosecond X-ray pulses allow researchers to peer deep inside molecules and follow electrons as they zip around and ultimately initiate chemical reactions.

Scientists at the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory devised a method to generate X-ray laser bursts lasting hundreds of attoseconds (or billionths of a billionth of a second) in 2018. This technique, known as X-ray laser-enhanced attosecond pulse generation (XLEAP), enables researchers to investigate how electrons racing about molecules initiate key processes in biology, chemistry, materials science, and other fields.

“Electron motion is an important process by which nature can move energy around,” says SLAC scientist James Cryan. “A charge is created in one part of a molecule and it transfers to another part of the molecule, potentially kicking off a chemical reaction. It’s an important piece of the puzzle when you start to think about photovoltaic devices for artificial photosynthesis, or charge transfer inside a molecule.”

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May 7, 2022

Using Optomemristors To Light Up Artificial Neural Networks

Posted by in categories: biological, robotics/AI

Artificial intelligence and machine learning hardware research have concentrated on building photonic synapses and neurons and combining them to do fundamental forms of neural-type processing. However, complex processing methods found in human brains—such as reinforcement learning and dendritic computation—are more challenging to replicate directly in hardware.

A new study contributes to closing the “hardware gap” by creating an “Optomemristor” device that responds to numerous electronic and photonic inputs at the same time. The diverse biophysical mechanisms that govern the functions of the brain’s neurons and synapses allow for complex learning and processing in the mammalian brain.

The chalcogenide thin-film technology interacts with both light and electrical impulses to mimic multifactor biological computations in mammalian brains while spending very little energy.

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May 6, 2022

Meta wants to improve its AI

Posted by in categories: biological, information science, robotics/AI

Would start with scanning and reverse engineering brains of rats, crows, pigs, chimps, and end on the human brain. Aim for completion by 12/31/2025. Set up teams to run brain scans 24÷7÷365 if we need to, and partner w/ every major neuroscience lab in the world.

If artificial intelligence is intended to resemble a brain, with networks of artificial neurons substituting for real cells, then what would happen if you compared the activities in deep learning algorithms to those in a human brain? Last week, researchers from Meta AI announced that they would be partnering with neuroimaging center Neurospin (CEA) and INRIA to try to do just that.

Through this collaboration, they’re planning to analyze human brain activity and deep learning algorithms trained on language or speech tasks in response to the same written or spoken texts. In theory, it could decode both how human brains —and artificial brains—find meaning in language.

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May 1, 2022

Gaia-Based Theosophy: Conception and Birth of the Living Earth

Posted by in categories: biological, climatology, evolution, neuroscience, sustainability

“The Earth has entered a radically new era, understood by scientists as the Anthropocene: a time when humanity reckons with massive geologic and biospheric forces we, as anthropos, have set in motion. The agency of Nature and the reality of humanity as a collective geologic force is becoming understood differently, even within the Western paradigm. It is a new world our children will inherit, for if humanity is to survive, we must come into new realizations of our place within the planetary life-support systems. To lay a path for future generations through the evolutionary steps that humanity must now take to learn to live in balance with the planet, science must come to balance with Spirit.” ―Oberon Zell, GaeaGenesis.

#OberonZell #GaeaGenesis #GaiaHypothesis #SyntellectHypothesis #GlobalMind #theosophy #consciousness

In the early 1970s, celebrated philosopher and mystic Oberon Zell was the first to propose the radical idea that the biosphere of Earth was a single living superorganism. His initial article on the subject electrified the emerging modern movement of Earth-based spirituality, generating volumes of correspondence, lecture tours, and further articles in various journals and books.

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