Archive for the ‘chemistry’ category: Page 7

Dec 16, 2023

This Is How You Use DOPAMINE As A SUPERPOWER In Your Life

Posted by in categories: chemistry, neuroscience

The pursuit of rewards can lead to addiction and insensitivity to pleasure, but managing neurochemistry and focusing on the process can help achieve fulfillment and reduce addiction.

Questions to inspire discussion.

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Dec 15, 2023

Computational model captures the elusive transition states of chemical reactions

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing

During a chemical reaction, molecules gain energy until they reach what’s known as the transition state — a point of no return from which the reaction must proceed.

MIT chemists have developed a computational model that can rapidly predict the structure of the transition state of a reaction (left structure), if it is given the structure of a reactant (middle) and product (right).

Dec 15, 2023

New way to charge batteries harnesses the power of ‘indefinite causal order’

Posted by in categories: chemistry, computing, engineering, quantum physics, sustainability

Batteries that exploit quantum phenomena to gain, distribute and store power promise to surpass the abilities and usefulness of conventional chemical batteries in certain low-power applications. For the first time, researchers, including those from the University of Tokyo, take advantage of an unintuitive quantum process that disregards the conventional notion of causality to improve the performance of so-called quantum batteries, bringing this future technology a little closer to reality.

When you hear the word “quantum,” the physics governing the subatomic world, developments in quantum computers tend to steal the headlines, but there are other upcoming quantum technologies worth paying attention to. One such item is the which, though initially puzzling in name, holds unexplored potential for sustainable energy solutions and possible integration into future electric vehicles. Nevertheless, these new devices are poised to find use in various portable and low-power applications, especially when opportunities to recharge are scarce.

At present, quantum batteries only exist as laboratory experiments, and researchers around the world are working on the different aspects that are hoped to one day combine into a fully functioning and practical application. Graduate student Yuanbo Chen and Associate Professor Yoshihiko Hasegawa from the Department of Information and Communication Engineering at the University of Tokyo are investigating the best way to charge a quantum battery, and this is where time comes into play. One of the advantages of quantum batteries is that they should be incredibly efficient, but that hinges on the way they are charged.

Dec 14, 2023

Michael Levin talk on bioelectricity at Stanford Chemical Engineering Colloquium

Posted by in categories: chemistry, engineering

Dec 14, 2023

Revolutionizing the Cosmos: Deep Learning Supercharges Galactic Calculations

Posted by in categories: chemistry, cosmology, robotics/AI

Supernovae, which are exploding stars, play a pivotal role in galaxy formation and evolution. However, simulating these phenomena accurately and efficiently has been a significant challenge. For the first time, a team including researchers from the University of Tokyo has utilized deep learning to enhance supernova simulations. This advancement accelerates simulations, crucial for understanding galaxy formation and evolution, as well as the evolution of chemistry that led to life.

When you hear about deep learning, you might think of the latest app that sprung up this week to do something clever with images or generate humanlike text. Deep learning might be responsible for some behind-the-scenes aspects of such things, but it’s also used extensively in different fields of research. Recently, a team at a tech event called a hackathon applied deep learning to weather forecasting. It proved quite effective, and this got doctoral student Keiya Hirashima from the University of Tokyo’s Department of Astronomy thinking.

Dec 13, 2023

Wild new NASA plasma tech reduces drag during hypersonic flight

Posted by in categories: chemistry, government, military, satellites

According to a notice the agency posted on the government contracting portal SAM.gov on Thursday (Dec. 7), the technology was developed by researchers at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia and has been studied for use in a simulated entry into Neptune’s atmosphere. A separate 2021 study of the same technology studied it for use in the atmosphere of Mars.

Related: Space Force wants ‘Foo Fighter’ satellites to track hypersonic missiles

The agency claims its MHD system is “simpler than conventional methods for control of hypersonic craft (e.g., chemical propulsion, shifting flight center of gravity, or trim tabs) and enables new entry, descent, and landing mission architectures.”

Dec 12, 2023

Spinning up control: Propeller shape helps direct nanoparticles (w/video)

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, engineering, mathematics, nanotechnology

Self-propelled nanoparticles could potentially advance drug delivery and lab-on-a-chip systems — but they are prone to go rogue with random, directionless movements. Now, an international team of researchers has developed an approach to rein in the synthetic particles.

Led by Igor Aronson, the Dorothy Foehr Huck and J. Lloyd Huck Chair Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Chemistry and Mathematics at Penn State, the team redesigned the nanoparticles into a propeller shape to better control their movements and increase their functionality. They published their results in the journal Small (“Multifunctional Chiral Chemically-Powered Micropropellers for Cargo Transport and Manipulation”).

A propeller-shaped nanoparticle spins counterclockwise, triggered by a chemical reaction with hydrogen peroxide, followed by an upward movement, triggered by a magnetic field. The optimized shape of these particles allows researchers to better control the nanoparticles’ movements and to pick up and move cargo particles. (Video: Active Biomaterials Lab)

Dec 12, 2023

Helicity Space ignites deep space nuclear fusion engine with new funds

Posted by in categories: chemistry, nuclear energy, space travel

Fusion-powered engines might drastically reduce travel time to the Moon and Mars.

California-based startup Helicity Space has successfully raised $5 million in a recent seed funding round.

Prominent space companies Airbus Ventures, TRE Ventures, Voyager Space Holdings, E2MC Space, Urania Ventures, and Gaingels have all invested in Helicity, according to a press release.

Continue reading “Helicity Space ignites deep space nuclear fusion engine with new funds” »

Dec 12, 2023

Using solid-state nanopores and DNA barcoding to identify misfolded proteins in neurodegenerative disorders

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, nanotechnology, neuroscience

A team of chemists, microbiologists and physicists at the University of Cambridge in the U.K. has developed a way to use solid-state nanopores and multiplexed DNA barcoding to identify misfolded proteins such as those involved in neurodegenerative disorders in blood samples. In their study, reported in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the group used multiplexed DNA barcoding techniques to overcome problems with nanopore filtering techniques for isolating harmful oligomers.

Prior research has shown that the presence of harmful oligomers in the brain can lead to misfolding of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Medical researchers have been looking for a way to detect them in the blood as a way to diagnose neurodegenerative disease and to track the progression once it has been confirmed.

Unfortunately, finding them in complex mixtures such as blood has proven to be a daunting task. One approach has shown promise—using sensors—but to date, they cannot track target oligomers as they speed through customizable solid-state nanopore sensors. In this new effort, the research team overcame this problem by using customizable DNA nanostructures.

Dec 12, 2023

Epigenetics linked to the maximum life spans of mammals — including us

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, chemistry, genetics

Some chemical tags on DNA, called epigenetic factors, that are present at a young age can affect the maximum life spans of mammal species.

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