Archive for the ‘engineering’ category: Page 6

Nov 23, 2023

Invisible No More: Tiny Bubbles Could Reveal Immune Cell Secrets and Improve Treatments

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, engineering, health

Macrophages, small but essential cells in the immune system, hold promise for cell-based therapies in numerous health conditions. Unlocking the full potential of macrophage therapies depends on our ability to observe their activities within the body. Now, researchers from Penn State have potentially developed a method to monitor these cells in action.

In a study published in the journal Small, the Penn State researchers report a novel ultrasound imaging technique to view macrophages continuously in mammal tissue, with potential for human application in the future.

“A macrophage is a type of immune cell that is important in nearly every function of the immune system, from detecting and clearing pathogens to wound healing,” said corresponding author Scott Medina, the William and Wendy Korb Early Career Associate Professor of Biomedical Engineering. “It is a component of the immune system that really bridges the two types of immunity: innate immunity, which responds to things very quickly but in a not very precise way, and adaptive immunity, which is much slower to come online but responds in a much more precise way.”

Nov 22, 2023

Windows Hello auth bypassed on Microsoft, Dell, Lenovo laptops

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, security

Security researchers bypassed Windows Hello fingerprint authentication on Dell Inspiron, Lenovo ThinkPad, and Microsoft Surface Pro X laptops in attacks exploiting security flaws found in the embedded fingerprint sensors.

Blackwing Intelligence security researchers discovered vulnerabilities during research sponsored by Microsoft’s Offensive Research and Security Engineering (MORSE) to assess the security of the top three embedded fingerprint sensors used for Windows Hello fingerprint authentication.

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Nov 20, 2023

Researchers develop neutron-shielding film for radiation protection

Posted by in categories: engineering, materials

An advancement in neutron shielding, a critical aspect of radiation protection, has been achieved. This breakthrough is poised to revolutionize the neutron shielding industry by offering a cost-effective solution applicable to a wide range of materials surfaces.

A research team, led by Professor Soon-Yong Kwon in the Graduate School of Semiconductors Materials and Devices Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at UNIST has successfully developed a neutron shielding film capable of blocking neutrons present in radiation. This innovative shield is not only available in large areas but also lightweight and flexible.

The team’s paper is published in the journal Nature Communications.

Nov 20, 2023

Researchers engineer nanoparticles using ion irradiation to advance clean energy, fuel conversion

Posted by in categories: chemistry, engineering, nanotechnology, nuclear energy, particle physics

MIT researchers and colleagues have demonstrated a way to precisely control the size, composition, and other properties of nanoparticles key to the reactions involved in a variety of clean energy and environmental technologies. They did so by leveraging ion irradiation, a technique in which beams of charged particles bombard a material.

They went on to show that created this way have superior performance over their conventionally made counterparts.

“The materials we have worked on could advance several technologies, from fuel cells to generate CO2-free electricity to the production of clean hydrogen feedstocks for the [through electrolysis cells],” says Bilge Yildiz, leader of the work and a professor in MIT’s Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering.

Nov 20, 2023

Lipid nanoparticles that deliver mRNA to T cells hold promise against autoimmune diseases

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, engineering, nanotechnology

Autoimmune disorders are among the most prevalent chronic diseases across the globe. Emerging treatments for autoimmune disorders focus on “adoptive cell therapies,” or those using cells from a patient’s own body to achieve immunosuppression. These therapeutic cells are recognized by the patient’s body as “self,” therefore limiting side effects, and are specifically engineered to localize the intended therapeutic effect.

In treating , current adoptive cell therapies have largely centered around the regulatory T cell (Treg), which is defined by the expression of the Forkhead box protein 3, orFoxp3. Although Tregs offer great potential, using them for therapeutic purposes remains a major challenge. In particular, current delivery methods result in inefficient engineering of T cells.

Tregs only compose approximately 5%–10% of circulating peripheral blood . Furthermore, Tregs lack more specific surface markers that differentiate them from other T cell populations. These hurdles make it difficult to harvest, purify and grow Tregs to therapeutically relevant numbers. Although there are additional tissue-resident Tregs in non-lymphoid organs such as in and visceral adipose tissue, these Tregs are severely inaccessible and low in number.

Nov 18, 2023

Swallowable device tracking vital signs inside the body in human trial

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, engineering, health

A new device that can be swallowed like a pill can track vital signs such as breathing and heart rate from inside the body.

Left: Ben Pless Right: Traverso Lab at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

“This device can help diagnose and monitor many health conditions without requiring hospital visits, which can make healthcare more accessible and supportive for patients,” says Giovanni Traverso, the lead author of the study, an associate professor of mechanical engineering at MIT and a gastroenterologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

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Nov 15, 2023

New technique could speed up the development of acoustic lenses, impact-resistant films and other futuristic materials

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering

Metamaterials are products of engineering wizardry. They are made from everyday polymers, ceramics, and metals. And when constructed precisely at the microscale, in intricate architectures, these ordinary materials can take on extraordinary properties.

With the help of computer simulations, engineers can play with any combination of microstructures to see how certain materials can transform, for instance, into sound-focusing acoustic lenses or lightweight, bulletproof films.

But simulations can only take a design so far. To know for sure whether a metamaterial will stand up to expectation, physically testing them is a must. But there’s been no reliable way to push and pull on metamaterials at the microscale, and to know how they will respond, without contacting and physically damaging the structures in the process.

Nov 13, 2023

First 2D semiconductor with 1,000 transistors developed: Redefining energy efficiency in data processing

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, nanotechnology, transportation

As information and communication technologies (ICT) process data, they convert electricity into heat. Already today, the global ICT ecosystem’s CO2 footprint rivals that of aviation. It turns out, however, that a big part of the energy consumed by computer processors doesn’t go into performing calculations. Instead, the bulk of the energy used to process data is spent shuttling bytes between the memory to the processor.

In a paper published in the journal Nature Electronics, researchers from EPFL’s School of Engineering in the Laboratory of Nanoscale Electronics and Structures (LANES) present a new processor that tackles this inefficiency by integrating data processing and storage onto a single device, a so-called in-memory processor.

They broke new ground by creating the first in-memory processor based on a two-dimensional to comprise more than 1,000 transistors, a key milestone on the path to industrial production.

Nov 12, 2023

James Webb Space Telescope

Posted by in categories: engineering, space


The most powerful telescope ever built.

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope that has been designed to study the universe in infrared light. It is the largest and most powerful telescope ever built, and it is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
JWST was launched on December 25, 2021, and it is now operational. The telescope is located at the second Lagrange point (L2) of the Sun-Earth system, which is about 1.5 million kilometers (930,000 miles) from Earth.

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Nov 11, 2023

Innovative new cell therapies could finally get at tough-to-target cancers

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, engineering

CAR T treatments help revolutionize treatment of blood cancer. Now, researchers are engineering immune cells to take aim at solid tumors.

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