Archive for the ‘genetics’ category: Page 131

Feb 22, 2016

Hybrid Technology Converts Sugar into Nylon

Posted by in categories: engineering, genetics

Now we can turn sugar into Nylon.

Genetically engineered yeast plus electro-catalyst yields bio-based nylon.

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Feb 22, 2016

Breaking Through the Bacteria Barrier

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics

Breaking the bacteria barriers.

If that field is at just the right magnitude, it will open up pores within the cell membrane, through which DNA can flow. But it can take scientists months or even years to figure out the exact electric field conditions to reversibly unlock a membrane’s pores.

A new microfluidic device developed by MIT engineers may help scientists quickly home in on the electric field “sweet spot” — the range of electric potentials that will harmlessly and temporarily open up membrane pores to let DNA in. In principle, the simple device could be used on any microorganism or cell, significantly speeding up the first step in genetic engineering.

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Feb 21, 2016

Scientists redefine animal classification system; Change confirmed

Posted by in categories: biological, genetics

Scientists have redefined the classification of animals due to genetics; 1st time in 300 years. I wonder how the Vets and the Vet Colleges will respond?

The classification system for animals has been hotly debated and frequently changed since it was created 300 years ago, but now researchers have actually found a genetic basis which confirms that part of the system we use today is actually pretty accurate—and they think this part can be defined even more specifically down to the genetic level.

An international team led by Professor Itai YanaAi of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology Department of Biology made the discovery after using an extraordinarily powerful technique known as CEL-Seq. CEL-Seq monitors individual cells for their gene activity (as detected via mRNA)—and they applied it across 10 different species, with CEL-Seq being applied to 70 embryos per species.

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Feb 20, 2016

How genetics regulate ageing

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, life extension

“Finding that GDF11 levels are under genetic control is of significant interest. Since it is under genetic control, we can find the genes responsible for GDF11 levels and its changes with age,” said the study’s senior author Rob Pazdro, assistant professor at University of Georgia in the US.

Scientists have shown that a hormone instrumental in the ageing process is under genetic control, introducing a new mechanism by which genetics regulate ageing and disease.

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Feb 19, 2016

Scientists say all the world’s data can fit on a DNA hard drive the size of a teaspoon

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, genetics

Even though it’s looking increasingly likely that humanity will find a way to wipe itself off the face of the Earth, there’s a chance that our creative output may live on. Servers, hard drives, flash drives, and disks will degrade (as will our libraries of paper books, of course), but a group of researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have found a way to encode data onto DNA—the very same stuff that all living beings’ genetic information is stored on—that could survive for millennia.

One gram of DNA can potentially hold up to 455 exabytes of data, according to the New Scientist. For reference: There are one billion gigabytes in an exabyte, and 1,000 exabytes in a zettabyte. The cloud computing company EMC estimated that there were 1.8 zettabytes of data in the world in 2011, which means we would need only about 4 grams (about a teaspoon) of DNA to hold everything from Plato through the complete works of Shakespeare to Beyonce’s latest album (not to mention every brunch photo ever posted on Instagram).

There are four types of molecules that make up DNA, which form pairs. To encode information on DNA, scientists program the pairs into 1s and os—the same binary language that encodes digital data. This is not a new concept—scientists at Harvard University encoded a book onto DNA in 2012—but up to now, it had been difficult to retrieve the information stored on the DNA.

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Feb 19, 2016

Biochemical alteration responsible for brain tumor resistance identified

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is often difficult to treat due to an enzyme (endonuclease DFF40/CAD (Death Fragmentation Factor, 40 kDa subunit / Caspase-Activated DNase)). This enzyme, which is essential for degrading DNA during apoptosis, appears both downregulated and improperly located inside the tumour cells. The researchers observed that overexpression of the enzyme allows the glioblastoma cells to properly degrade their DNA content.

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive manifestation of brain tumours. Due to its high invasive capacity and uncontrolled, infiltrating growth, it is particularly difficult to manage. Currently, the treatment for this disease consists of a combination of surgery (when possible), radiation and chemotherapy. Although current therapy raises the overall survival of patients by around 15 months, it remains inefficient at eradicating tumour cells and, unfortunately, recurrences are another of this cancer’s characteristics.

A team of researchers from the Institute of Neuroscience at the UAB, together with the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge — ICO, have identified a common molecular alteration in glioblastoma. The researchers observed that the cells of this type of tumour harbour a common intrinsic defect that prevents them from degrading their genetic material during apoptosis, the most important form of programmed cell death induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

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Feb 18, 2016

Caribou Bio’s New CRISPR Patent Isn’t About Gene Editing

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics

The facts about the CRISPR Patent.

Xconomy San Francisco —

If you ask people who don’t follow biotech too closely what they know about CRISPR, you might get two answers: genetic editing and a big patent fight.

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Feb 17, 2016

Neuroscientists reverse autism symptoms

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

Autism has diverse genetic causes, most of which are still unknown. About 1 percent of people with autism are missing a gene called Shank3, which is critical for brain development. Without this gene, individuals develop typical autism symptoms including repetitive behavior and avoidance of social interactions.

In a study of mice, MIT researchers have now shown that they can reverse some of those behavioral symptoms by turning the gene back on later in life, allowing the brain to properly rewire itself.

“This suggests that even in the adult brain we have profound plasticity to some degree,” says Guoping Feng, an MIT professor of brain and cognitive sciences. “There is more and more evidence showing that some of the defects are indeed reversible, giving hope that we can develop treatment for autistic patients in the future.”

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Feb 15, 2016

10-Minute Cancer Test is Possible Through Saliva

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics

Very interesting.

The current cancer tests involve numerous blood tests or a biopsy in order to sequence a tumor. Among the cancers that the tests could detect is pancreatic, which to date lacks effective early screening capabilities.

“Down the road it might be possible to test for multiple cancers at the same time”, Professor Wong added.

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Feb 14, 2016

Scientists Assert That the WHO Should Classify Aging as a Disease

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, health, life extension

A group of scientists are calling on the WHO to classify aging as a disease, asserting that we need to create a better classification for what happens to our bodies as we get older.

A new controversy is brewing, as one group of scientists is recommending that aging be considered a disease.

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