Archive for the ‘health’ category: Page 11

Nov 8, 2023

Connectivity scans could serve as brain ‘blueprints’ for adolescents, researchers find

Posted by in categories: health, neuroscience

Researchers with the Translational Research in Neuroimaging and Data Science (TReNDs) Center at Georgia State have identified important new methods for accurately identifying possible biomarkers in adolescent brains that can reliably predict cognitive developments and psychiatric issues.

A new study, published in Nature Mental Health, represents the first large-scale analysis of its kind in which researchers analyzed functional network connectivity (FNC) across scans and identified associations with a diverse range of health measures in children. Researchers believe that inferences about early cognitive and psychiatric behaviors in children may be made using these intra-subject variabilities as a useful biomarker.

Researchers studied four scans from more than 9,000 subjects ages 9 to 11.

Nov 8, 2023

PET scans may predict Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia in at-risk individuals

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, neuroscience

In a small study, researchers at the National Institutes of Health have found that positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the heart may identify people who will go on to develop Parkinson’s disease or Lewy body dementia among those at-risk for these diseases.

The findings, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and led by scientists at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of NIH, may advance efforts to detect the earliest changes that years later lead to Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia.

In 34 people with Parkinson’s disease risk factors, researchers conducted PET scans of the heart to gain insight into levels of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. They found that the scans could distinguish individuals who would later be diagnosed with Parkinson’s or Lewy body dementia—both are brain diseases caused by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein that form clumps known as Lewy bodies. The research was conducted at the NIH Clinical Center, currently the only location for 18 F-dopamine PET scanning.

Nov 7, 2023

Probiotic treatment with E faecalis improves symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

Germany: A recent study published in the International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology has shown the effectiveness of the probiotic treatment with Enterococcus faecalis in reducing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis after four weeks.

The results are in line with similar studies showing the beneficial effects of E. faecalis. Furthermore, the data showed that allergic symptoms were alleviated during the COVID-19 pandemic situation. This is in line with previous studies and might be explained by a reduced confrontation with pollen due to masks, psychological factors, or lockdown situations.

Although allergic rhinitis treatment has been proven to be effective, it is expensive, does not completely resolve symptoms, and is related to side effects. Previous studies have indicated that probiotics may be a new promising treatment for allergic rhinitis. Michael Schaefer, Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany, and colleagues aimed to evaluate the effects of a single bacterial strain, Enterococcus faecalis on symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Beneficial effects of E. faecalis have been reported before but not in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

Nov 6, 2023

DNA repair discovery might improve biotechnology: Research

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, health

Washington [US], March 5 (ANI): A team of researchers from Michigan State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine made a discovery that may have significance for therapeutic gene editing strategies, cancer diagnostics and therapies and other advancements in biotechnology. Kathy Meek, a professor in the College of Veterinary Medicine, and collaborators at Cambridge University and the National Institutes of Health have uncovered a previously unknown aspect of how DNA double-stranded breaks are repaired.

A large protein kinase called DNA-PK starts the DNA repair process; in their new report, two distinct DNA-PK protein complexes are characterized, each of which has a specific role in DNA repair that cannot be assumed by the other.

“It still gives me chills,” says Meek. “I don’t think anyone would have predicted this.”

Nov 6, 2023

Historical trends demonstrate a pattern of increasingly frequent and severe spillover events of hiconsequence zoonotic viruses

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, climatology, health

The COVID-19 pandemic has focused attention on patterns of infectious disease spillover. Climate and land-use changes are predicted to increase the frequency of zoonotic spillover events, which have been the cause of most modern epidemics. Characterising historical trends in zoonotic spillover can provide insights into the expected frequency and severity of future epidemics, but historical epidemiological data remains largely fragmented and difficult to analyse. We utilised our extensive epidemiological database to analyse a specific subset of high-consequence zoonotic spillover events for trends in the annual frequency and severity of outbreaks. Our analysis, which excludes the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, shows that the number of spillover events and reported deaths have been increasing by 4.98% (confidence interval [CI]95% [3.22%; 6.76%]) and 8.7% (CI 95% [4.06%; 13.62%]) annually, respectively. This trend can be altered by concerted global efforts to improve our capacity to prevent and contain outbreaks. Such efforts are needed to address this large and growing risk to global health.

Nov 3, 2023

The total mass, number, and distribution of immune cells in the human body

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health

The immune system is a complex network of cells with critical functions in health and disease. However, a comprehensive census of the cells comprising the immune system is lacking. Here, we estimated the abundance of the primary immune cell types throughout all tissues in the human body. We conducted a literature survey and integrated data from multiplexed imaging and methylome-based deconvolution. We also considered cellular mass to determine the distribution of immune cells in terms of both number and total mass. Our results indicate that the immune system of a reference 73 kg man consists of 1.8 × 1012 cells (95% CI 1.5–2.3 × 1012), weighing 1.2 kg (95% CI 0.8–1.9). Lymphocytes constitute 40% of the total number of immune cells and 15% of the mass and are mainly located in the lymph nodes and spleen. Neutrophils account for similar proportions of both the number and total mass of immune cells, with most neutrophils residing in the bone marrow. Macrophages, present in most tissues, account for 10% of immune cells but contribute nearly 50% of the total cellular mass due to their large size. The quantification of immune cells within the human body presented here can serve to understand the immune function better and facilitate quantitative modeling of this vital system.

Nov 3, 2023

How a specific metabolite tells cells whether to repair DNA

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, neuroscience

Metabolites called nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and can impact cancer’s sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy and radiation in brain cancer. Findings from researchers at the University of Michigan Health Rogel Cancer Center, published in Cancer Discovery, show how a specific nucleotide metabolite, called GTP, controls responses to radiation and chemotherapy in an unexpected way.

“We learned that if you increase a cell’s GTP levels, it makes it really resistant to radiation or chemotherapy. Lowering GTP levels, the cell becomes much more sensitive,” said Daniel Wahl, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of radiation oncology at Michigan Medicine and senior author of this paper.

Researchers have long known that levels of nucleotides like GTP control how fast DNA damage is repaired, which in turn controls sensitivity to therapies.

Nov 2, 2023

NIH Statement on Preliminary Efficacy Results of First-in-Class Gonorrhea Antibiotic Developed Through Public-Private Partnership

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, finance, health

A study by the Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership and Innoviva Specialty Therapeutics found a single dose of a first-in-class oral antibiotic called zoliflodacin was as safe and effective as standard therapy for uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea. NIAID contributed financial and scientific support to the development of zoliflodacin and applauds its non-governmental and private sector partners on successfully conducting the study. Read the NIH statement on these results: https://go.nih.gov/Wquuct

A single dose of a novel oral antibiotic called zoliflodacin has been found to be as safe and effective as standard therapy for uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea in an international Phase 3 non-inferiority clinical trial, according to the Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership (GARDP), the study sponsor. Gonorrhea treatment options are increasingly limited due to antimicrobial resistance seen in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria that cause gonococcal infection.

Because of the imperative to expand the gonococcal therapeutic pipeline, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has contributed financial and scientific support to the development of zoliflodacin and applauds its non-governmental and private sector partners on successfully conducting the Phase 3 study. This research has generated important new evidence for a field in urgent need of alternative therapeutic options. Specifically, zoliflodacin may offer an alternative to current therapy for uncomplicated urogenital gonococcal infection.

Continue reading “NIH Statement on Preliminary Efficacy Results of First-in-Class Gonorrhea Antibiotic Developed Through Public-Private Partnership” »

Nov 2, 2023

Researchers develop approach that could help supercharge T-cell therapies against solid tumors

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, engineering, health

Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have developed a way to potentially increase the effectiveness of T cell–based immunotherapy treatments, such as CAR T-cell therapy, against solid tumors. T cells are specialized white blood cells of the immune system that eliminate infected or abnormal cells. In animal studies, the enhanced T-cell therapies were effective against cervical cancer and neuroblastoma, a common solid tumor in children. The findings, by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of NIH, appear in Clinical Cancer Research.

CAR T-cell therapy is a form of cellular immunotherapy that involves engineering T cells in the laboratory so they can specifically target and kill tumors. CAR T-cell therapy has been successful in treating blood cancers, but it hasn’t worked well for solid tumors. To improve the effectiveness of T-cell therapy against solid tumors, researchers at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research engineered T cells (CAR T cells and another form of cellular immunotherapy called TCR T cells) to carry cytokines, which are proteins that can boost T-cell function.

In laboratory studies, CAR and TCR T cells modified to express the cytokines IL-15 and IL-21 on their surface killed far more than T cells carrying just one of these cytokines or neither of them. Previous research has found that treating patients with large amounts of cytokines caused severe, potentially fatal, side effects. The new approach aims to deliver this cytokine boost in a much more targeted way.

Nov 1, 2023

Engineers create a robotic eye-seeing dog to aid the visually impaired

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, robotics/AI

The robot guide dog possesses the ability to respond to tugs on a leash.

Researchers have created a robot guide dog to make life easier for the visually impaired with its ability to respond to tugs on a leash. The team of engineers at Binghamton University’s Computer Science Department in New York State has been developing a robotic seeing-eye dog to improve accessibility for those who are visually impaired. Last year, they performed a trick-or-treating exercise with its quadruped robotic dog.

Now, they have demonstrated a robot dog leading a person down a lab hallway, confidently and carefully reacting to directive instructions. Engineers were surprised that throughout the visually impaired… More.

Continue reading “Engineers create a robotic eye-seeing dog to aid the visually impaired” »

Page 11 of 379First89101112131415Last