Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 11

Jul 29, 2020

Solving materials problems with a quantum computer

Posted by in categories: chemistry, engineering, information science, particle physics, quantum physics, supercomputing

Quantum computers have enormous potential for calculations using novel algorithms and involving amounts of data far beyond the capacity of today’s supercomputers. While such computers have been built, they are still in their infancy and have limited applicability for solving complex problems in materials science and chemistry. For example, they only permit the simulation of the properties of a few atoms for materials research.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago (UChicago) have developed a method paving the way to using quantum computers to simulate realistic molecules and complex materials, whose description requires hundreds of atoms.

The research team is led by Giulia Galli, director of the Midwest Integrated Center for Computational Materials (MICCoM), a group leader in Argonne’s Materials Science division and a member of the Center for Molecular Engineering at Argonne. Galli is also the Liew Family Professor of Electronic Structure and Simulations in the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering and a Professor of Chemistry at UChicago. She worked on this project with assistant scientist Marco Govoni and graduate student He Ma, both part of Argonne’s Materials Science division and UChicago.

Jul 28, 2020

Machine learning predicts satisfaction in romantic relationships

Posted by in categories: health, information science, robotics/AI

The most reliable predictor of a relationship’s success is partners’ belief that the other person is fully committed, a Western University-led international research team has found.

Other in a successful include feeling close to, appreciated by, and sexually satisfied with your partner, says the study—the first-ever systematic attempt at using machine-learning algorithms to predict people’s relationship satisfaction.

“Satisfaction with has important implications for health, wellbeing and work productivity,” Western Psychology professor Samantha Joel said. “But research on predictors of relationship quality is often limited in scope and scale, and carried out separately in individual laboratories.”

Jul 27, 2020

Artificial Intelligence Identifies Prostate Cancer With Near-Perfect Accuracy

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, health, information science, robotics/AI

A study published today (July 27, 2020) in The Lancet Digital Health by UPMC and University of Pittsburgh researchers demonstrates the highest accuracy to date in recognizing and characterizing prostate cancer using an artificial intelligence (AI) program.

“Humans are good at recognizing anomalies, but they have their own biases or past experience,” said senior author Rajiv Dhir, M.D., M.B.A., chief pathologist and vice chair of pathology at UPMC Shadyside and professor of biomedical informatics at Pitt. “Machines are detached from the whole story. There’s definitely an element of standardizing care.”

To train the AI to recognize prostate cancer, Dhir and his colleagues provided images from more than a million parts of stained tissue slides taken from patient biopsies. Each image was labeled by expert pathologists to teach the AI how to discriminate between healthy and abnormal tissue. The algorithm was then tested on a separate set of 1,600 slides taken from 100 consecutive patients seen at UPMC for suspected prostate cancer.

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Jul 26, 2020

DeepMind’s Newest AI Programs Itself to Make All the Right Decisions

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

In a new paper, DeepMind describes an AI algorithm that was able to discover a critical programming rule in deep reinforcement learning from scratch.

Jul 25, 2020

Understanding and coding Neural Networks From Scratch in Python and R

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Note: This article was originally published on May 29, 2017, and updated on July 24, 2020 Overview Neural Networks is one of the most popular machine learning algorithms Gradient Descent forms the basis of Neural networks Neural networks can be implemented in both R and Python using certain libraries and packages.

Jul 24, 2020

Machine learning reveals recipe for building artificial proteins

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, chemistry, food, information science, robotics/AI

Proteins are essential to the life of cells, carrying out complex tasks and catalyzing chemical reactions. Scientists and engineers have long sought to harness this power by designing artificial proteins that can perform new tasks, like treat disease, capture carbon, or harvest energy, but many of the processes designed to create such proteins are slow and complex, with a high failure rate.

In a breakthrough that could have implications across the healthcare, agriculture, and energy sectors, a team lead by researchers in the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering (PME) at the University of Chicago has developed an -led process that uses big data to design new proteins.

By developing machine-learning models that can review protein information culled from genome databases, the researchers found relatively simple design rules for building . When the team constructed these artificial proteins in the lab, they found that they performed chemistries so well that they rivaled those found in nature.

Jul 24, 2020

Deep learning, neural networks and the future of AI

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Yann LeCun, the chief AI scientist at Facebook, helped develop the deep learning algorithms that power many artificial intelligence systems today. In conversation with head of TED Chris Anderson, LeCun discusses his current research into self-supervised machine learning, how he’s trying to build machines that learn with common sense (like humans) and his hopes for the next conceptual breakthrough in AI.

This talk was presented at an official TED conference, and was featured by our editors on the home page.

Jul 20, 2020

DeepMind’s AI automatically generates reinforcement learning algorithms

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Researchers at DeepMind propose a new technique that automatically discovers a reinforcement learning algorithm from scratch.

Jul 19, 2020

AI model to forecast complicated large-scale tropical instability waves in Pacific Ocean

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Large-scale oceanic phenomena are complicated and often involve many natural processes. Tropical instability wave (TIW) is one of these phenomena.

Pacific TIW, a prominent prevailing oceanic event in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, is featured with cusp-shaped waves propagating westward at both flanks of the tropical Pacific cold tongue.

The forecast of TIW has long been dependent on physical equation-based numerical models or statistical models. However, many natural processes need to be considered for understanding such complicated phenomena.

Jul 18, 2020

Researchers develop AI algorithm that can generate images

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI, transportation

An AI algorithm is capable of automatically generating realistic-looking images from bits of pixels.

Why it matters: The achievement is the latest evidence that AI is increasingly able to learn from and copy the real world in ways that may eventually allow algorithms to create fictional images that are indistinguishable from reality.

What’s new: In a paper presented at this week’s International Conference on Machine Learning, researchers from OpenAI showed they could train the organization’s GPT-2 algorithm on images.

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