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Archive for the ‘information science’ category: Page 95

Sep 16, 2016

Reinforcement Learning for Torch: Introducing torch-twrl

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

Advances in machine learning have been driven by innovations and ideas from many fields. Inspired by the way that humans learn, Reinforcement Learning (RL) is concerned with algorithms which improve with trial-and-error feedback to optimize future performance.

Board games and video games often have well-defined reward functions which allow for straightforward optimization with RL algorithms. Algorithmic advances have allowed for RL to be in real-world problems, such as high degree-of-freedom robotic manipulation and large-scale recommendation tasks, with more complex goals.

Twitter Cortex invests in novel state-of-the-art machine learning methods to improve the quality of our products. We are exploring RL as a learning paradigm, and to that end, Twitter Cortex built a framework for RL development. Today, Twitter is open sourcing torch-twrl to the world.

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Sep 15, 2016

New technology may help read brain signals directly

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, neuroscience

Nice.


Researchers have developed a new technology that can help read brain signals directly and may also aid people with movement disabilities to better communicate their thoughts and emotions. The technology involves a multi-electrode array implanted in the brain to directly read signals from a region that ordinarily directs hand and arm movements used, for example, to move a computer mouse.

The algorithms translate those signals and help to make letter selections.

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Sep 15, 2016

Quantum Mechanics Revisited: Physicists Propose New Structure of Time

Posted by in categories: information science, particle physics, quantum physics

Read a little further into the paper, and things get really weird. If the equations of quantum mechanics must be altered in accordance with the new research, then it will give rise to a new and very curious definition of time.

Time is, essentially, a “crystal”—a highly organized lattice of discrete “particles,” or regularly repeating segments.

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Sep 14, 2016

8 Takes on the Rise of AI and Its Implications

Posted by in categories: computing, information science, robotics/AI

In recent years, it’s been exciting watching advances in AI like IBM’s Watson smashing humans at Jeopardy and Google’s AlphaGo AI beating champions at the game of Go a decade earlier than expected. But the sophisticated algorithms under the hood are really the stars of the show.

These powerful computing systems are fundamentally changing industries and automating a growing number of day-to-day tasks. At the same time, AI still isn’t perfect, and we’ve seen hints of its potential dark side. Our algorithms are only as good as the data we feed them. And there’s been a spirited debate about existential dangers down the road.

Here’s a look into some of the topics leading the dialogue as AI technology evolves into its next generation.

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Sep 13, 2016

Quantum Cosmology and the Evolution of Inflationary Spectra [CL]

Posted by in categories: cosmology, evolution, information science, quantum physics

We illustrate how it is possible to calculate the quantum gravitational effects on the spectra of primordial scalar/tensor perturbations starting from the canonical, Wheeler-De Witt, approach to quantum cosmology. The composite matter-gravity system is analysed through a Born-Oppenheimer approach in which gravitation is associated with the heavy degrees of freedom and matter (here represented by a scalar field) with the light ones. Once the independent degrees of freedom are identified the system is canonically quantised. The differential equation governing the dynamics of the primordial spectra with its quantum-gravitational corrections is then obtained and is applied to diverse inflationary evolutions. Finally, the analytical results are compared to observations through a Monte Carlo Markov Chain technique and an estimate of the free parameters of our approach is finally presented and the results obtained are compared with previous ones.

Read this paper on arXiv…

A. Kamenshchik, A. Tronconi and G. Venturi Tue, 13 Sep 16 11/91.

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Sep 12, 2016

First multicellular organism inspires the design of better cancer drugs

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, evolution, information science

Amazing — fighting cancer with a new drug that self-assembles from individual cells that interact with each other into a complex structure through weak supramolecular interactions.


The first multicellular organism, Volvox, evolved from self-assembly of individual cells. Inspired by this organism, researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital have developed a novel approach for treating cancer. Drawing from the lessons of evolution, they designed anti-cancer molecules that can self-assemble with each other into a complex structure through weak supramolecular interactions. The complex, supramolecular therapeutics home into the tumor, increasing anticancer efficacy and reducing side effects.

To engineer the supramolecular therapeutics, the researchers developed a first-of-its-kind computational algorithm that simulates how anticancer molecules interact with each other at the molecular and atomic level. This understanding led to the design of the most optimal building blocks that can click with each other like LEGO blocks to form the supramolecular therapeutic. The researchers have named this computational algorithm Volvox after the biological organism.

Ashish Kulkarni, PhD, an instructor in the Division of Engineering in the Department of Medicine at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and the lead author of the paper published in September issue of ACS Nano, said, “The algorithm saves a lot of time during the development of next generation cancer therapy. Before we even go into experimental analysis, we are able to see whether or not there is a high enough concentration of the drug for the treatment to be effective. We hope that our method can eventually be used to treat many different types of cancer.”

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Sep 12, 2016

The Universe expands equally in all directions — and this is bad news for Einstein’s equations

Posted by in categories: information science, space

Zoom out far enough, and the Universe is a pretty homogenous place.

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Sep 10, 2016

AVIA Provides Systematic Test and Evaluation for Autonomy Systems

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

For vessels operating at sea, avoiding collisions is a basic operational requirement. When those vessels are operated by humans, collision avoidance is part of basic operator training. And when those vessels become highly autonomous, collision avoidance must be incorporated into complex autonomy algorithms that must be thoroughly tested before the vessels enter the water.

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Sep 10, 2016

Oppo can fully charge a smartphone in 15 minutes

Posted by in categories: information science, mobile phones

Most people might not drool over Oppo phones, but they’re going to get a feature that might get those salivary glands pumping. This morning at Mobile World Congress, the company showed off its new SuperVOOC quick-charging technology. If real-world results are as promising as they say, Oppo fans will be able to fully charge some of their devices in 15 minutes. No, seriously.

Oppo says that’s about how much time it’ll take to charge a dead 2,500mAh battery to 100 percent, and that the technology will work over traditional micro-USB and USB Type-C cables. That’s even faster than what we’ve seen out of Qualcomm’s most recent Quick Charge 3.0 demos — the fast-charging technology baked into chipsets like the Snapdragon 820 can get a smartphone from bone-dry to 80 percent in around 35 minutes. Of course, it’s sort of no surprise that Oppo can squeeze better performance out of their system — it’s more or less proprietary Oppo, so the company has full control over the battery, silicon and software involved. That’s the sort of end-to-end control that helped Huawei figure out how to supercharge smartphones, too.

In some cases, you’ll be able to get a full charge in less than 15 minutes. An Oppo hype man plugged a metal-encased reference device into a charger and continued his spiel in Mandarin. Less than ten minutes later — after he discussed an algorithm that varies current to maximize charging efficiency while keeping temperatures low — the phone was back up to 100 percent. Our natural skeptics can’t help suspect this was just a staged demo for the show, so here’s hoping we soon get to test a SuperVOOC phone for ourselves.

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Sep 10, 2016

Machine-Learning Algorithm Generates Videos From Stills

Posted by in categories: information science, robotics/AI

MIT has used machine learning to create video from still images, and the results are pretty impressive. As you can see from the above image, there’s a lot of natural form to the movement in the videos.

The system “learns” types of videos (beach, baby, golf swing…) and, starting from still images, replicates the movements that are most commonly seen in those videos. So the beach video looks like it has crashing waves, for instance.

But like other machine-generated images, these have limitations. The first is size: what you see above is the extent to which the program can render its video. Length is also an issue: only about a second of video gets produced.

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