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Archive for the ‘mathematics’ category: Page 2

Jul 2, 2019

Drones and AI used to enhance lost person search and rescue

Posted by in categories: drones, information science, mathematics, robotics/AI

Thanks to a $1.5 million grant from the National Science Foundation, a group of Virginia Tech engineers hopes to redefine these search and rescue protocols by teaming up human searchers with unmanned aerial robots, or drones.

In efforts led by Ryan Williams, an assistant professor in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering within the College of Engineering, these drones will use autonomous algorithms and machine learning to complement search and rescue efforts from the air. The drones will also suggest tasks and send updated information to human searchers on the ground.

Using mathematical models based on historical data that reflect what lost people actually do combined with typical searcher behavior, the researchers hope this novel approach of balancing autonomy with human collaboration can make searches more effective. The team has received support from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management and will work closely with the local Black Diamond Search and Rescue Council throughout the project.

Jul 1, 2019

Study unveils new supersymmetry anomalies in superconformal quantum field theories

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers at the University of Southampton and the Korea Institute for Advanced Study have recently showed that supersymmetry is anomalous in N=1 superconformal quantum field theories (SCFTs) with an anomalous R symmetry. The anomaly described in their paper, published in Physical Review Letters, was previously observed in holographic SCFTs at strong coupling, yet their work confirms that it is already present in the simplest free STFCs.

“Supersymmetry is a symmetry that relates particles with integer and half-integer spin, and has played a central role in many advances in since its discovery,” Kostas Skenderis, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org. “It has been used as a means to understand the behavior of strongly interacting where our usual theoretical tools () are not applicable, as well as in some of the main candidates for beyond the Standard Model physics.”

Supersymmetry underlies the mathematical consistency of string theory, which is the most complete theory of gravity proposed so far. A quantum anomaly, such as that observed by the researchers, is essentially the failure of a symmetry to be preserved at a quantum level. These anomalies typically come in two types: “bad” ones, which render string theory mathematically inconsistent and “healthy” ones, which capture important quantum properties of the theory.

Jun 26, 2019

NIST Reveals 26 Algorithms Advancing to the Post-Quantum Crypto ‘Semifinals’

Posted by in categories: computing, encryption, information science, mathematics, quantum physics

The field has narrowed in the race to protect sensitive electronic information from the threat of quantum computers, which one day could render many of our current encryption methods obsolete.

As the latest step in its program to develop effective defenses, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has winnowed the group of potential encryption tools—known as cryptographic algorithms—down to a bracket of 26. These algorithms are the ones NIST mathematicians and computer scientists consider to be the strongest candidates submitted to its Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization project, whose goal is to create a set of standards for protecting electronic information from attack by the computers of both tomorrow and today.

“These 26 algorithms are the ones we are considering for potential standardization, and for the next 12 months we are requesting that the cryptography community focus on analyzing their performance,” said NIST mathematician Dustin Moody. “We want to get better data on how they will perform in the real world.”

Jun 23, 2019

Scientists Discover an ‘Unexpectedly Simple’ Formula Behind The Nature of Water Drops

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, space

Scientists have discovered an unexpectedly simple formula that governs one of the most seemingly unknowable limits in physics: determining how much of an electric field a water droplet can withstand before it will burst.

This infinitesimal phenomenon has been studied by physicists for decades, but while the overall concept may be easy to imagine, discerning the mathematical relationships that underpin such electrified explosions has been anything but.

Now that it’s been figured out, scientists say this one formula could lead to new advancements in everything from space propulsion to mass spectrometry, high-resolution printing, air purification, molecular analysis, and more.

Jun 18, 2019

Study sheds light on gauge invariance in ultrastrong-coupling cavity quantum electrodynamics

Posted by in categories: mathematics, quantum physics

In quantum electrodynamics, the choice of gauge (i.e. specific mathematical formalism used to regulate degrees of freedom) can greatly influence the form of light-matter interactions. Interestingly, however, the “gauge invariance” principle implies that all physical results should be independent from a researcher’s choice of gauge. The quantum Rabi model, which is often used to describe light-matter interactions in cavity-QED, has been found to violate this principle in the presence of ultrastrong light-matter coupling, and past studies have attributed this failure to the finite-level truncation of the matter system.

A team of researchers at RIKEN (Japan), Università di Messina (Italy) and the University of Michigan (U.S.) have recently carried out a study investigating this topic further. In their paper, published in Nature Physics, they identified the source of this gauge violation and provided a method to derive light-matter Hamiltonians in truncated Hilbert spaces, which can produce gauge-invariant physical results even in extreme light-matter interaction regimes.

“Ultrastrong coupling between light and matter has, in the past decade, transitioned from a theoretical idea to an experimental reality,” Salvatore Savasta, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org. “It is a new regime of light-matter interaction, which goes beyond weak and strong coupling to make the coupling strength comparable to the transition frequencies in the system. These regimes, besides enabling intriguing new physical effects, as well as many , represents an opportunity to deepen our understanding subtle aspects of the interaction of light and matter.”

Jun 12, 2019

Asteroid mining not a million miles away

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, mathematics, space travel

Work by a team of University of Adelaide scientists to perfect metal and mineral extraction processes is bringing the possibility of mining the wealth contained within asteroids closer to reality. But science fiction won’t become fact until asteroid mining becomes economically as well as technically viable.

“Asteroids such as Bennu are closer to us than Adelaide is to Alice Springs, about 1000 kilometres away in Earth’s near orbit,” says Professor Volker Hessel, Deputy Dean-Research from the University of Adelaide’s Faculty of Engineering, Computer & Mathematical Sciences (ECMS) and Professor in the School of Chemical Engineering.

“Advances in space exploration mean that these bodies which contain nickel, cobalt, and platinum as well as water and organic matter, are now within reach.”

Continue reading “Asteroid mining not a million miles away” »

Jun 10, 2019

Mathematical Beauty Activates Same Brain Region as Great Art or Music

Posted by in categories: mathematics, media & arts, neuroscience

People who appreciate the beauty of mathematics activate the same part of their brain when they look at aesthetically pleasing formula as others do when appreciating art or music, suggesting that ther.

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Jun 10, 2019

Immortality is mathematically impossible, new research finds

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, information science, life extension, mathematics

A mathematical equation has proven that controlling one of the two major changes in a cell—decay or cancerous growth—enhances the other, causing inevitable death.

NEXT NEWS ❯

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May 29, 2019

Famous unsolved math problem sees new progress

Posted by in category: mathematics

Mathematicians say an old approach to the Riemann Hypothesis is worth revisiting. Whoever solves it gets at $1 million prize.

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May 28, 2019

Researchers crack an enduring physics enigma

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics

For decades, physicists, engineers and mathematicians have failed to explain a remarkable phenomenon in fluid mechanics: the natural tendency of turbulence in fluids to move from disordered chaos to perfectly parallel patterns of oblique turbulent bands. This transition from a state of chaotic turbulence to a highly structured pattern was observed by many scientists, but never understood.

At EPFL’s Emerging Complexity in Physical Systems Laboratory, Tobias Schneider and his team have identified the mechanism that explains this phenomenon. Their findings have been published in Nature Communications.

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