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Archive for the ‘mathematics’ category: Page 5

Dec 5, 2018

Modeling the Microbiome

Posted by in categories: biological, health, mathematics, physics

What the study shows, the researchers said, is that the interactions between the bacterial populations are as significant to the host’s overall fitness as their presence — the microbiome’s influence cannot be solely attributed to the presence or absence of individual species. “In a sense,” said Jones, “the microbiome’s influence on the host is more than the sum of its parts.”


The gut microbiome — the world of microbes that inhabit the human intestinal tract — has captured the interest of scientists and clinicians for its critical role in health. However, parsing which of those microbes are responsible for effects on our wellbeing remains a mystery.

Taking us one step closer to solving this puzzle, UC Santa Barbara physicists Eric Jones and Jean Carlson have developed a mathematical approach to analyze and model interactions between gut bacteria in fruit flies. This method could lead to a more sophisticated understanding of the complex interactions between human gut microbes.

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Nov 29, 2018

Chaos Makes the Multiverse Unnecessary

Posted by in categories: alien life, mathematics, supercomputing

Scientists look around the universe and see amazing structure. There are objects and processes of fantastic complexity. Every action in our universe follows exact laws of nature that are perfectly expressed in a mathematical language. These laws of nature appear fine-tuned to bring about life, and in particular, intelligent life. What exactly are these laws of nature and how do we find them?

The universe is so structured and orderly that we compare it to the most complicated and exact contraptions of the age. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the universe was compared to a perfectly working clock or watch. Philosophers then discussed the Watchmaker. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the most complicated object is a computer. The universe is compared to a perfectly working supercomputer. Researchers ask how this computer got its programming.

How does one explain all this structure? Why do the laws seem so perfect for producing life and why are they expressed in such exact mathematical language? Is the universe really as structured as it seems?

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Nov 23, 2018

Physicist Wins Ig Noble Prize For Study On Whether Cats Should Be Classified As Liquids Or Solids

Posted by in categories: humor, mathematics

A French physicist has won an Ig Nobel Prize for using mathematical formulas to determine whether cats are liquid or solid.

are cats liquid nobel prize

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Nov 11, 2018

Sci-Fi Writer Greg Egan and Anonymous Math Whiz Advance Permutation Problem

Posted by in categories: innovation, mathematics

A debate over the most efficient way to watch a cult classic TV series’ episodes, in every possible order, lies at the heart of this mathematical breakthrough.

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Oct 31, 2018

Why the number 137 is one of the greatest mysteries in physics

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, particle physics

The constant figures in other situations, making physicists wonder why. Why does nature insist on this number? It has appeared in various calculations in physics since the 1880s, spurring numerous attempts to come up with a Grand Unified Theory that would incorporate the constant since. So far no single explanation took hold. Recent research also introduced the possibility that the constant has actually increased over the last six billion years, even though slightly. If you’d like to know the math behind fine structure constant more specifically, the way you arrive at alpha is by putting the 3 constants h, c, and e together in the equation — As the units c, e, and h cancel each other out, the.

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Oct 30, 2018

This Bizarre Form of Ice Grows at Over 1,000 mph, And Now Physicists Know How

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics

New research into a very weird type of ice known as Ice VII has revealed how it can form at speeds over 1,000 miles per hour (1,610 kilometres per hour), and how it might be able to spread across yet-to-be-explored alien worlds.

This ice type was only discovered occurring naturally in March, trapped inside diamonds deep underground, and this latest study looks in detail at how exactly it takes shape – apparently in a way that’s completely different to how water usually freezes into ice.

Based on a mathematical model devised by researchers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, there’s a certain pressure threshold across which Ice VII will spread with lightning speed. This process of near-instantaneous transformation is known as homogeneous nucleation.

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Oct 28, 2018

A Huge Achievement in Math Shows the Limits of Symmetries

Posted by in category: mathematics

In a major mathematical achievement, a small team of researchers has proven Zimmer’s conjecture.

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Oct 22, 2018

Dr. Sam Palmer – Thymic Involution and Cancer Risk

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, life extension, mathematics

Cancer is the poster child of age-related diseases, and a recent study sheds light on why the risk of cancer rises dramatically as we age.

Abstract

For many cancer types, incidence rises rapidly with age as an apparent power law, supporting the idea that cancer is caused by a gradual accumulation of genetic mutations. Similarly, the incidence of many infectious diseases strongly increases with age. Here, combining data from immunology and epidemiology, we show that many of these dramatic age-related increases in incidence can be modeled based on immune system decline, rather than mutation accumulation. In humans, the thymus atrophies from infancy, resulting in an exponential decline in T cell production with a half-life of ∼16 years, which we use as the basis for a minimal mathematical model of disease incidence. Our model outperforms the power law model with the same number of fitting parameters in describing cancer incidence data across a wide spectrum of different cancers, and provides excellent fits to infectious disease data.

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Oct 18, 2018

IBM finally proves that quantum systems are faster than classicals

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, quantum physics

IBM researchers provide mathematical proof to Shor’s Algorithm.

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Oct 15, 2018

What Is A Quantum Computer? The 30,000 Foot Overview

Posted by in categories: computing, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

If you replace classical bits with qubits, though, you go back to only needing one per spin in the system, because all the quantum stuff comes along for free. You don&s;t need extra bits to track the superposition, because the qubits themselves can be in superposition states. And you don&s;t need extra bits to track the entanglement, because the qubits themselves can be entangled with other qubits. A not-too-big quantum computer— again, 50–100 qubits— can efficiently solve problems that are simply impossible for a classical computer.

These sorts of problems pop up in useful contexts, such as the study of magnetic materials, whose magnetic nature comes from adding together the quantum spins of lots of particles, or some types of superconductors. As a general matter, any time you&s;re trying to find the state of a large quantum system, the computational overhead needed to do it will be much less if you can map it onto a system of qubits than if you&s;re stuck using a classical computer.

So, there&s;s your view-from-30,000-feet look at what quantum computing is, and what it&s;s good for. A quantum computer is a device that exploits wave nature, superposition, and entanglement to do calculations involving collective mathematical properties or the simulation of quantum systems more efficiently than you can do with any classical computer. That&s;s why these are interesting systems to study, and why heavy hitters like Google, Microsoft, and IBM are starting to invest heavily in the field.

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