Archive for the ‘nanotechnology’ category: Page 4

Jun 15, 2022

Scientists Develop “Nanomachines” That Can Penetrate and Kill Cancer Cells

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

A research team from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology has developed ‘nanomachines,’ which use mechanical molecular movements to penetrate and destroy cells. Selective cancer cell penetration is also possible by using a latch molecule released near cancer cells. Cancer is a condition where some of the body’s cells grow out of control and spread to other bodily regions. Cancer cells divide continually, leading them to invade surrounding tissue and form solid tumors. The majority of cancer treatments involve killing the cancer cells.

According to 2020 estimates, 1.8 million new instances of cancer were diagnosed in the US, and 600,000 people passed away from the condition. Breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer are the most common cancers. The average age of a cancer patient upon diagnosis is 66, and individuals between the ages of 65 and 74 account for 25% of all new cancer diagnoses.

Proteins are involved in every biological process and use the energy in the body to change their structure via mechanical movements. They are referred to as biological ‘nanomachines’ since even minor structural changes in proteins have a substantial impact on biological processes. To implement movement in the cellular environment, researchers have focused on the development of nanomachines that imitate proteins. However, cells use a variety of mechanisms to defend themselves against the effect of these nanomachines. This restricts any relevant mechanical movement of nanomachines that could be used for medical purposes.

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Jun 15, 2022

Novel Nanoparticle Increases Drug Delivery In Solid Tumors

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

Researchers from Wake Forest University School of Medicine have discovered a possible new approach in treating solid tumors through the creation of a novel nanoparticle. Solid tumors are found in cancers such as breast, head and neck, and colon cancer.

In the study, Xin Ming, Ph.D., associate professor of cancer biology at Wake Forest University School of Medicine, and his team used a nanoparticle to deliver a small molecule called ARL67156 to promote an anti-tumor immune response in mouse models of colon, head and neck, and metastatic breast cancer, resulting in increased survival.

The study is published online in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

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Jun 14, 2022

Researchers Create Particle Accelerator on a Chip

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, nanotechnology

Circa 2020

You’ve no doubt heard of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the massive particle accelerator straddling the border between France and Switzerland. The large size of this instrument allows scientists to do cutting-edge research, but particle accelerators could be useful in many fields if they weren’t so huge. The age of room-sized (and larger) colliders may be coming to an end now that researchers from Stanford have developed a nano-scale particle accelerator that fits on a single silicon chip.

Full-sized accelerators like the LHC push beams of particles to extremely high speeds, allowing scientists to study the minutiae of the universe when two particles collide. The longer the beamline, the higher the maximum speed. Keeping these beams confined requires extremely powerful magnets, as well. It all adds up to a bulky piece of equipment that isn’t practical for most applications. For example, cancer radiation treatments with a particle accelerator could be much safer and more effective than traditional methods.

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Jun 14, 2022

With a Twist: New Composite Materials With Highly Tunable Electrical and Physical Properties

Posted by in categories: mathematics, nanotechnology, particle physics, sustainability

Marianne StebbinsWhat does this solve that isn’t already handled by air and water?

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Anne KristoffersenTurn the Bering Strait Crossing into a bridge arcology and the project will handsomely pay for itself in a sustainable way.

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Jun 13, 2022

Nanoparticle technology provides healthy trans, saturated fat alternative

Posted by in categories: food, nanotechnology, particle physics

The old adage that oil and water don’t mix isn’t entirely accurate. While it’s true that the two compounds don’t naturally combine, turning them into one final product can be done. You just need an emulsifier, an ingredient commonly used in the food industry.

Yangchao Luo, an associate professor in UConn’s College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, is using an innovative emulsification process for the development of a healthier shelf-stable fat for food manufacturing.

Luo is working with something known as high internal phase Pickering emulsions (HIPEs). High internal phase means the mixture is at least 75% oil. Pickering emulsions are those that are stabilized by solid particles.

Jun 13, 2022

Mechanotransduction: Using nuclear mechanics to understand health and diseases

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, health, nanotechnology

The application of mechanic forces to the cell nucleus affects the transport of proteins through the nuclear membrane, an action that controls cellular processes and could play a key role in several diseases such as cancer. These findings draw a new scenario for understanding how the mechanic forces drive the progression of cancer and open the doors to the design of potential innovative techniques—both diagnostic and therapeutic. This is the conclusion of a study published in the journal Nature Cell Biology led by lecturer Pere Roca-Cusachs, from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the University of Barcelona, the Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology of the UB (IN2UB) and the Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC).

The cells in the body receive mechanical stimuli from their environment and respond accordingly regarding decisions on how and when to grow, move and differentiate. The process is known as mechanotransduction and it is critically important for the cell function and for human health.

The study reveals that the direct application of force to the can affect the spatial organization of the DNA and the activity of nuclear proteins, among other functions. When invade the organs and metastasis appears, these create physical forces that are transmitted to the .

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Jun 12, 2022

Pink Noise as a Probe of Quantum Transport

Posted by in categories: nanotechnology, particle physics, quantum physics

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Noise in an electronic circuit is a nuisance that can scramble information or reduce a detector’s sensitivity. But noise also offers a way to learn about the microscopic quantum mechanisms at play in a material or device. By measuring a circuit’s “shot noise,” a form of white noise, researchers have previously shed light on conduction in quantum Hall and spintronic systems, for instance. Now, a collaboration led by Oren Tal at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, and by Dvira Segal at the University of Toronto, Canada, has shown that an easier-to-measure form of noise, called “flicker noise,” can also be a powerful probe of quantum effects [1].

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Jun 10, 2022

Decoding a key part of the cell, atom

Posted by in categories: computing, genetics, nanotechnology, nuclear energy, particle physics

Whatever you are doing, whether it is driving a car, going for a jog, or even at your laziest, eating chips and watching TV on the couch, there is an entire suite of molecular machinery inside each of your cells hard at work. That machinery, far too small to see with the naked eye or even with many microscopes, creates energy for the cell, manufactures its proteins, makes copies of its DNA, and much more.

Among those pieces of machinery, and one of the most complex, is something known as the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The NPC, which is made of more than 1,000 individual proteins, is an incredibly discriminating gatekeeper for the cell’s nucleus, the membrane-bound region inside a cell that holds that cell’s genetic material. Anything going in or out of the nucleus has to pass through the NPC on its way.

Nuclear pores stud the surface of the cell’s nucleus, controlling what flows in and out of it. (Image: Valerie Altounian)

Jun 10, 2022

Today is a BFD triumph in life science—

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology, robotics/AI, science

Solving the 3D structure at near atomic level resolution, one of the world’s hardest, giant jigsaw puzzles—the nuclear pore complex—the largest molecular machine in human cells, with structure-based AI prediction @ScienceMagazine

Jun 9, 2022

Scientists uncover clues about the generation of nanomachines in Salmonella

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology

Researchers at the University of Liverpool have captured a clear view of the generation process of “protein machinery” that plays a key role in the colonization of pathogenic Salmonella bacteria.

The findings, published in Nature Communications, answer an important question about how various proteins self-assemble to create a higher-ordered functional organelle in Salmonella to boost metabolism.

Many , such as Salmonella, use specialized nano-sized organelles, or bacterial microcompartments (BMC). The BMC has a virus-like polyhedral shell made of proteins to encase multiple metabolic cargo enzymes. The protein shell provides a selectively permeable barrier which controls the passage of metabolites and sequesters the reactions in its interior. This ensures higher efficiency of the encapsulated reactions and prevents toxic products from being released into the rest of the cell, providing the pathogens a competitive advantage in human gut.

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