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Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category

Nov 14, 2019

Bacteria in the gut may alter aging process

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, genetics, life extension, neuroscience

Neuroscience News

Neuroscience News

Nov 14, 2019

Subcellular computations within brain during decision-making

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

New research suggests that during decision-making, neurons in the brain are capable of much more complex processing than previously thought.

In a study published in eLIFE, researchers, including first author Aaron Kerlin, PhD, who is an assistant professor in the Department of Neuroscience and member of the Medical Discovery Team on Optical Imaging and Brain Science at the University of Minnesota Medical School, were the first to develop a microscope that rapidly images large stretches of the dendrite where neurons receive thousands of inputs from other neurons.

Dr. Kerlin conducted this research while at Janelia Research Campus and found that neighboring inputs to small sections of dendrite tended to represent similar information about upcoming actions.

Nov 14, 2019

Brain implant boosts human memory by up to 30%

Posted by in category: neuroscience

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Nov 14, 2019

Doctors Are Using Human Brain Implants to Fight Drug Addiction

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Surgeons are trying to battle addiction from inside the brain.

Nov 14, 2019

Elon Musk Claims Neuralink Can “Solve” Autism, Schizophrenia

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, Elon Musk, neuroscience

Musk equated autism with neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia.

Nov 14, 2019

Lithium can reverse radiation damage after brain tumor treatment

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Children who have received radiotherapy for a brain tumor can develop cognitive problems later in life. In their studies on mice, researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now shown that the drug lithium can help to reverse the damage caused long after it has occurred. The study is published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry and the researchers are now planning to test the treatment in clinical trials.

Nowadays, four out of five children with a tumor survive. In the adult Swedish population, one in 600 people have been treated for childhood cancer, about one third of which were brain tumors. Many of them live with damage caused by the radiotherapy, which can cause deficiencies in memory and learning.

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden now show that the memory capacity and learning capability of mice improve if is given after the irradiation of the brain. Mice that were irradiated early in life and then given lithium from adolescence until young adulthood performed just as well as mice who had not been given radiation. The researchers observed an increase in the formation of new neurons in an area that is important to the memory (the hippocampus) during the period in which they received lithium, but their maturity into full nerve cells only occurred once the lithium treatment was discontinued.

Nov 14, 2019

Parkinson’s Gut Bacteria Studies Differ in Findings, Methods, Review Says

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Studies on gut bacteria in Parkinson’s disease differ in their findings and important methodological details, according to a new review that highlights these differences and proposes strategies to mitigate them in the future.

The study, titled “ Increasing Comparability and Utility of Gut Microbiome Studies in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review,” was published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease.

Although Parkinson’s is often thought of as a disorder of the brain, the gut likely plays an important role in the disease, but it has only been seriously studied in recent years. A number of studies have recently focused on how the gut microbiome — the bacteria that live inside the intestines — might impact Parkinson’s.

Nov 14, 2019

How human brain development diverged from great apes

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, evolution, genetics, neuroscience

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, and ETH Zurich, Switzerland, have presented new insights into the development of the human brain and differences in this process compared to other great apes. The study reveals features of brain development that are unique to humans, and outlines how these processes have diverged from those in other primates.

Since humans diverged from a common ancestor shared with chimpanzees and the other great apes, the has changed dramatically. However, the genetic and developmental processes responsible for this divergence are not understood. Cerebral organoids (brain-like tissues), grown from stem cells in a dish, offer the possibility to study the evolution of early brain development in the laboratory.

Sabina Kanton, Michael James Boyle and Zhisong He, co-first authors of the study, together with Gray Camp, Barbara Treutlein and colleagues analyzed human through their development from to explore the dynamics of gene expression and regulation using methods called single-cell RNA-seq and ATAC-seq. The authors also examined chimpanzee and macaque cerebral organoids to understand how organoid development differs in humans.

Nov 13, 2019

Modern apes smarter than pre-humans

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

New research from the University of Adelaide suggests living great apes are smarter than our pre-human ancestor Australopithecus, a group that included the famous “Lucy.”

The study, conducted in partnership with the Evolutionary Studies Institute of the University of the Witwatersrand and published today in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, challenges the long-held idea that, because the of Australopithecus was larger than that of many modern apes, it was smarter.

The new research measured the rate of blood flow to the cognitive part of the brain, based on the size of the holes in the skull that passed the supply arteries. This technique was calibrated in humans and other mammals and applied to 96 skulls and 11 Australopithecus fossil skulls.

Nov 13, 2019

New nanoparticles can deliver drugs to brain tumors

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, nanotechnology, neuroscience

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