Archive for the ‘neuroscience’ category

Jul 27, 2021

Biomarker Could Help Diagnosis Schizophrenia at an Early Age

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: Study reveals an abundance of the CRMP2 protein in people with schizophrenia. The findings could lead to a blood-based biomarker test for the mental health disorder.

Source: SBPMDI

Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have discovered how levels of a protein could be used in the future as a blood-based diagnostic aid for schizophrenia. The activity of the protein, which is found in both the brain and blood, affects neural connections in human brains and is uniquely imbalanced in people diagnosed with the condition. The research also provides guidance for future analyses into the molecular basis of this serious, disabling mental disorder.

Jul 27, 2021

Large study finds COVID-19 is linked to a substantial deficit in intelligence

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, computing, neuroscience, sex

After controlling for factors such as age, sex, handedness, first language, education level, and other variables, the researchers found that those who had contracted COVID-19 tended to underperform on the intelligence test compared to those who had not contracted the virus. The greatest deficits were observed on tasks requiring reasoning, planning and problem solving, which is in line “with reports of long-COVID, where ‘brain fog,’ trouble concentrating and difficulty finding the correct words are common,” the researchers said.

People who have recovered from COVID-19 tend to score significantly lower on an intelligence test compared to those who have not contracted the virus, according to new research published in The Lancet journal EClinicalMedicine. The findings suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 can produce substantial reductions in cognitive ability, especially among those with more severe illness.

“By coincidence, the pandemic escalated in the United Kingdom in the middle of when I was collecting cognitive and mental health data at very large scale as part of the BBC2 Horizon collaboration the Great British Intelligence Test,” said lead researcher Adam Hampshire (@HampshireHub), an associate professor in the Computational, Cognitive and Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory at Imperial College London.

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Jul 27, 2021

Neanderthal-like ‘mini-brains’ created in lab with CRISPR

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, evolution, neuroscience

“It’s an extraordinary paper with some extraordinary claims,” says Gray Camp, a developmental biologist at the University of Basel in Switzerland, whose lab last year reported2 growing brain organoids that contained a gene common to Neanderthals and humans. The latest work takes the research further by looking at gene variants that humans lost in evolution. But Camp remains sceptical about the implications of the results, and says the work opens more questions that will require investigation.

Humans are more closely related to Neanderthals and Denisovans than to any living primate, and some 40% of the Neanderthal genome can still be found spread throughout living humans. But researchers have limited means to study these ancient species’ brains — soft tissue is not well preserved, and most studies rely on inspecting the size and shape of fossilized skulls. Knowing how the species’ genes differ from humans’ is important because it helps researchers to understand what makes humans unique — especially in our brains.

The researchers, led by Alysson Muotri, a neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego, used the genome-editing technique CRISPR–Cas9 to introduce the Neanderthal and Denisovan form of a gene called NOVA1 into human pluripotent stem cells, which can develop into any cell type. They cultured these to form organoids, clumps of brain-like tissue, up to 5 millimetres across, alongside normal human brain organoids for comparison.

Jul 26, 2021

How Gene Therapy and Algae Proteins Partially Restored a Blind Man’s Sight

Posted by in categories: bioengineering, biotech/medical, genetics, neuroscience

The result is optogenetics, a mind-controlling technique that’s become one of neuroscience’s most popular tools. Here, scientists use genetic engineering to put different types of algae proteins into the brains of mice. They can then activate a neuron with an implanted fiber optic cable by pulsing certain wavelengths of light. These enhanced brain cells react as they would naturally, generating an electrical signal that’s passed down and interpreted by the mouse’s brain.

Sound familiar?

If an algae protein can artificially allow neurons in the brain to translate light into electrical information, why can’t it do the same for damaged eyes?

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Jul 24, 2021

Panpsychism, the idea that inanimate objects have consciousness, gains steam in science communities

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, science

An expanding notion of what “consciousness” is could have profound repercussions.

Jul 24, 2021

Brain-Repair Discovery Could Lead to New Epilepsy Treatments

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Using high-powered imaging, the researchers were able to see, for the first time, that immune cells called microglia were not just removing damaged material after experimental seizures but actually appeared to be healing damaged neurons.

Summary: Microglia do not only remove damaged materials following a seizure, they also appear to heal damaged neurons.

Source: University of Virginia

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Jul 24, 2021

Investigational Magnetic Device Shrinks Glioblastoma in First-in-World Human Test

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

Summary: A novel helmet that generates a noninvasive oscillating magnetic field was able to reduce tumor mass by 31% in a glioblastoma brain cancer patient.

Source: Houston Methodist.

Houston Methodist Neurological Institute researchers from the department of neurosurgery shrunk a deadly glioblastoma tumor by more than a third using a helmet generating a noninvasive oscillating magnetic field that the patient wore on his head while administering the therapy in his own home. The 53-year-old patient died from an unrelated injury about a month into the treatment, but during that short time, 31% of the tumor mass disappeared. The autopsy of his brain confirmed the rapid response to the treatment.

Jul 24, 2021

Sirtuins Anti Aging. Revisited. What they are. Why you should care. How you can benefit

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, life extension, neuroscience

Good day to you all.

Sirtuins are once again, making headlines. From a longer lifespan, again, through to helping old and dormant hair follicles to grow new hair, and of course a discourse between certain personalities on twitter, they continue to stimulate the interest and promise so much…

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Jul 23, 2021

Clinical Course and Risk Factors of Disease Deterioration in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, neuroscience

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in December 2019 and rapidly spread to other provinces in China as well as other countries. In this study, 262 patients diagnosed with moderate to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China, were analyzed. Data were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Of all the 262 patients, 23 (8.8%) patients died and 239 (91.2%) were discharged. The median age was 63.5 years and 46.9% of patients were male. The main complaints were fever (83.6%), cough (63.4%), and fatigue (49.2%) in the surviving group, while there were more complaints of dyspnea (39.1%) and shortness of breath (56.5%) in the nonsurviving group. The main comorbidities were hypertension (35.5%), diabetes mellitus (16.4%), and coronary artery disease (9.9%). Morbidity is higher in elderly patients with more comorbidities. Patients were mainly treated with nasal cannula (93.9%), while the nonsurviving group received more invasive mechanical ventilation (39.1%). Arbidol (80.9%), ribavirin (36.6%), oseltamivir (38.9%), interferon (16.4%), and ganciclovir (14.5%) were used for the antiviral treatment. In the nonsurviving group, the number of white blood cells (WBC) was significantly increased and lymphocytes were decreased, and lymphopenia was more common. The levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also significantly increased in the nonsurviving group. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for association of known variables for all-cause mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 were 2.467 (95% confidence interval[CI], 1.007−6.044; p = 0.048) for shortness of breath and 1.025 (95% CI, 1.001−1.049; p = 0.042) for AST. Elderly patients with more comorbidities and complaints of dyspnea and shortness of breath had increased risk of death. Patients with lymphopenia and high levels of WBC, AST, BNP, CK-MB, LDH, and CRP may be more likely to deteriorate.

Human Gene Therapy.

Jul 23, 2021

Scientists made this rat fearless

Posted by in categories: food, genetics, neuroscience, robotics/AI

Neuroscientists removed fear from rats by inactivating amygdala — brain region mediating fear.

#Neuroscience #Brain #YuriNeuro #Neurobiology #Amygdala.

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