Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 9

Feb 12, 2024

Lopsided Galaxies Shed Light on the Speed of Dark Matter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

In new research published in Astronomy & Astrophysics, researchers have figured out how to precisely calculate the forces that affect galaxies in tidal cycles. The next stage is to find galaxies sufficiently lopsided in the universe to study the velocity of dark matter relative to the galaxies.

So, how can the speed of dark matter be measured? The prerequisite is to find a galaxy in the universe that moves relative to dark matter. Since everything in the universe is in motion and there is a great deal of dark matter, it is not difficult to find such galaxies.

Heavy objects, like galaxies, attract all types of matter, whether it is dark matter or visible matter that we encounter on a daily basis. As dark matter moves past a galaxy, the galaxy begins to pull the dark matter particles towards it. However, the change of speed direction of the particles takes time. Before their trajectory curves towards the galaxy, they already manage to pass the galaxy.

Feb 11, 2024

Challenging Conventional Understanding — Scientists Discover Groundbreaking Connection Between Light and Magnetism

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics

Recent research conducted at Hebrew University has uncovered a previously unknown connection between light and magnetism. This finding paves the way for the development of ultra-fast memory technologies controlled by light, as well as pioneering sensors capable of detecting the magnetic components of light. This advancement is anticipated to transform data storage practices and the fabrication of devices across multiple sectors.

Professor Amir Capua, head of the Spintronics Lab within the Institute of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, announced a pivotal breakthrough in the realm of light-magnetism interactions. The team’s unexpected discovery reveals a mechanism wherein an optical laser beam controls the magnetic state in solids, promising tangible applications in various industries.

Feb 10, 2024

Humanity’s Quest to Find New Physics Hinges on a Controversial Particle Smasher

Posted by in category: particle physics

This next-gen collider could redefine the boundaries of physics, but it comes with an astronomical cost.

Feb 10, 2024

First-ever images of heat ‘sloshing’ like sound waves captured by MIT in a superfluid

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, space

The researchers applied the higher resonant radio frequency, which prompted any normal, “hot” fermions in the liquid to ring in response. The researchers then could zero in on the resonating fermions and track them over time to create “movies” that revealed heat’s pure motion — a sloshing back and forth, similar to sound waves.

“For the first time, we can take pictures of this substance as we cool it through the critical temperature of superfluidity, and directly see how it transitions from being a normal fluid, where heat equilibrates boringly, to a superfluid where heat sloshes back and forth,” Zwierlein says.

The experiments mark the first time scientists have been able to image second sound directly and the pure motion of heat in a superfluid quantum gas. The researchers plan to extend their work to map heat’s behavior more precisely in other ultracold gases. Then, they say their findings can be scaled up to predict how heat flows in other strongly interacting materials, such as high-temperature superconductors and neutron stars.

Feb 10, 2024

Beyond the Visible Universe: New Research Reveals How Gravity Influences the Quantum Realm

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Nuclear physicists have discovered gravity’s profound influence on the quantum scale, revealing the strong force’s distribution within protons for the first time. This groundbreaking research, combining historical theoretical insights with modern experimental data, offers unprecedented understanding of the proton’s internal dynamics and sets the stage for future discoveries in nuclear science.

Gravity’s influence is unmistakably evident throughout the observable universe. Its effects are observed in the synchronized orbits of moons around planets, in comets that deviate from their paths due to the gravitational pull of large stars, and in the majestic spirals of enormous galaxies. These magnificent phenomena highlight the role of gravity on the grandest scales of matter. Meanwhile, nuclear physicists are uncovering the significant contributions of gravity at the very smallest scales of matter.

New research conducted by nuclear physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility is using a method that connects theories of gravitation to interactions among the smallest particles of matter to reveal new details at this smaller scale. The research has now revealed, for the first time, a snapshot of the distribution of the strong force inside the proton. This snapshot details the shear stress the force may exert on the quark particles that make up the proton. The result was recently published in Reviews of Modern Physics.

Feb 8, 2024

New techniques for making qubits out of erbium

Posted by in categories: computing, engineering, particle physics, quantum physics

Qubits are the building block for quantum technology, and finding or building qubits that are stable and easily manipulated is one of the central goals of quantum technology research. Scientists have found that an atom of erbium—a rare-earth metal sometimes used in lasers or to color glass—can be a very effective qubit.

To make qubits, erbium atoms are placed in “host materials,” where the erbium atoms replace some of the material’s original atoms. Two research groups—one at quantum startup memQ, a Chicago Quantum Exchange corporate partner, and one at the US Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory, a CQE member—have used different host materials for erbium to advance , demonstrating the versatility of this kind of qubit and highlighting the importance of materials science to quantum computing and quantum communication.

The two projects address challenges that quantum computing researchers have been trying to solve: engineering multi-qubit devices and extending the amount of time qubits can hold information.

Feb 8, 2024

Where do cosmic rays come from?

Posted by in category: particle physics

High-energy particles from space constantly bombard Earth at near light speed, but what are their origins?

Feb 8, 2024

EVs that go 1,000 km on a single charge: Gel makes it possible

Posted by in categories: particle physics, robotics/AI, sustainability, transportation

Futuristic advancements in AI and healthcare stole the limelight at the tech extravaganza Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2024. However, battery technology is the game-changer at the heart of these innovations, enabling greater power efficiency. Importantly, electric vehicles are where this technology is being applied most intensely. Today’s EVs can travel around 700km on a single charge, while researchers are aiming for a 1,000km battery range.

Researchers are fervently exploring the use of silicon, known for its high storage capacity, as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries for EVs. However, despite its potential, bringing silicon into practical use remains a puzzle that researchers are still working hard to piece together.

Enter Professor Soojin Park, PhD candidate Minjun Je, and Dr. Hye Bin Son from the Department of Chemistry at Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH). They have cracked the code, developing a pocket-friendly and rock-solid next-generation high-energy-density Li-ion battery system using micro silicon particles and gel polymer electrolytes.

Feb 8, 2024

Lattice Model Captures Dynamics of the Glass Transition

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Scientists have yet to obtain a complete microscopic understanding of how a supercooled liquid behaves as it turns into a glass. Different theories can capture different aspects of the spatial and temporal dynamics of this process, but the assumptions behind these theories are, in some cases, mutually exclusive. Now Yoshihiko Nishikawa at Tohoku University, Japan, and Ludovic Berthier at the University of Montpellier, France, reconcile two competing descriptions of this glass-transition behavior using a recently developed lattice model [1].

A prominent glass-transition theory known as random first-order transition theory holds that a cooling glass-forming liquid adopts a mosaic-like static structure with finite-range order. In this framework, so-called dynamic fluctuations—reorganizations of a material’s particles—occur when boundaries between mosaic “tiles” collectively rearrange. These fluctuations are fundamentally tied to static, region-to-region variations in a material’s structure. A competing theory known as dynamic-facilitation theory contains no assumptions about the system’s static structure or region-to-region variations. This theory postulates that dynamic fluctuations occur via local, small-scale particle rearrangements that trigger a reorganizational chain reaction that then propagates through the material.

For their study, Nishikawa and Berthier used a different theory to probe the glass transition of a supercooled liquid. Their three-dimensional lattice theory exhibits mosaic-like structural variations that are consistent with those from random first-order transition theory. However, the researchers found that the model’s predictions for the dynamic fluctuations more closely resemble those of the dynamic-facilitation framework. Nishikawa says that no current experiments can directly confirm the occurrence of these behaviors in real glass-forming materials. But he hopes to use the three-dimensional lattice model to reproduce some recently observed indirect experimental data.

Feb 8, 2024

Unlocking Quantum Superconductivity Mysteries With Ultracold Fermions

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers have made a landmark discovery in quantum physics by observing and quantitatively characterizing the many-body pairing pseudogap in unitary Fermi gases, a topic of debate for nearly two decades. This finding not only resolves long-standing questions about the nature of the pseudogap in these gases but also suggests a potential link to the pseudogap observed in high-temperature superconductors. Credit: SciTechDaily.com.

Researchers have conclusively observed the many-body pairing pseudogap in unitary Fermi gases, advancing our understanding of superconductivity mechanisms.

A research team led by Professors Jianwei Pan, Xingcan Yao, and Yu’ao Chen from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, has for the first time observed and quantitatively characterized the many-body pairing pseudogap in unitary Fermi gases.

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