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Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 2

Aug 17, 2019

Physicists solve 2,000-year-old optical problem

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, robotics/AI

A trio of physicists from the National Autonomous University of Mexico and Tec de Monterrey has solved a 2,000-year-old optical problem—the Wasserman-Wolf problem. In their paper published in the journal Applied Optics, Rafael González-Acuña, Héctor Chaparro-Romo, and Julio Gutiérrez-Vega outline the math involved in solving the puzzle, give some examples of possible applications, and describe the efficiency of the results when tested.

Over 2,000 years ago, Greek scientist Diocles recognized a problem with —when looking through devices equipped with them, the edges appeared fuzzier than the center. In his writings, he proposed that the effect occurs because the lenses were spherical—light striking at an angle could not be focused because of differences in refraction. Isaac Newton was reportedly stumped in his efforts to solve the problem (which became known as ), as was Gottfried Leibniz.

In 1949, Wasserman and Wolf devised an analytical means for describing the problem, and gave it an official name—the Wasserman-Wolf problem. They suggested that the to solving the problem would be to use two aspheric adjacent surfaces to correct aberrations. Since that time, researchers and engineers have come up with a variety of ways to fix the problem in specific applications—most particularly cameras and telescopes. Most such efforts have involved creating aspherical lenses to counteract refraction problems. And while they have resulted in improvement, the solutions have generally been expensive and inadequate for some applications.

Aug 15, 2019

LIGO and Virgo probably spotted the first black hole swallowing up a neutron star

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

BIG GULP Gravitational waves may have revealed a black hole in the process of swallowing up a neutron star (illustrated). If confirmed, the event would be the first of its kind ever seen.

Aug 15, 2019

Time travel PROOF: Physicist says ‘it’s POSSIBLE’ and THIS is how you do it

Posted by in categories: physics, time travel

The prospect of reliving a past moment from Earth’s amazing history or skipping ahead of the future is a tantalising idea widely present in science fiction. But physicists who spend their days pondering the mysteries of time and space believe might be within the realm of possibility. This does not mean scientists will develop TARDIS-like time travel machines straight out of Dr Who any time soon. Instead, the theoretical and physical frameworks are there to show moving forward in time can be achieved – with a small catch.

Aug 14, 2019

Light can scatter from light, CERN physicists confirm

Posted by in categories: innovation, physics

Physics World represents a key part of IOP Publishing’s mission to communicate world-class research and innovation to the widest possible audience. The website forms part of the Physics World portfolio, a collection of online, digital and print information services for the global scientific community.

Aug 12, 2019

The Twisty Physics of Simone Biles’ Historic Triple-Double

Posted by in category: physics

What. The. Heck. Did you see that? Simone Biles appears to defy the laws of physics with this epic tumbling pass from the 2019 US Gymnastics Championships. It’s called a triple-double. That means she rotates around an axis going through her hips twice while at the same time rotating about an axis going from head to toe THREE times. Yes, it’s difficult—but it doesn’t defy physics, it uses physics.

Continue reading “The Twisty Physics of Simone Biles’ Historic Triple-Double” »

Aug 6, 2019

Physicists to Split $3 Million Breakthrough Prize for Supergravity

Posted by in categories: physics, space

Physicists Sergio Ferrara, Dan Freedman, and Peter van Nieuwenhuizen will split a $3 million Breakthrough Prize for their theory of supergravity, which drives much of today’s physics research toward our understanding of the universe.

The Breakthrough Prize is an annual award to recognize groundbreaking science, funded by Russian-Israeli billionaire Yuri Milner. Though Breakthrough Prizes are awarded annually, “special” Breakthrough Prizes can be awarded any time and need not honor recent work. In fact, the researchers behind today’s award thought they’d missed the chance to win it.

Aug 4, 2019

Physicists Overturn a 100-Year-Old Assumption on How Brain Cells Work

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, physics

The human brain contains a little over 80-odd billion neurons, each joining with other cells to create trillions of connections called synapses.

The numbers are mind-boggling, but the way each individual nerve cell contributes to the brain’s functions is still an area of contention.

In fact, a study published in 2017 has overturned a 100-year-old assumption on what exactly makes a neuron ‘fire’, posing new mechanisms behind certain neurological disorders.

Aug 2, 2019

Physicists Just Captured The First-Ever Footage of a Molecule’s Spectacular Rotation

Posted by in categories: entertainment, physics

Imagine trying to film an event that was over and done within a mere 125 trillionths of a second. It’s something that molecular physicists have long been dreaming of, and at last it seems they’ve achieved their goal.

Using precisely tuned pulses of laser light, an international team of scientists from four different institutions has managed to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule.

“We recorded a high-resolution molecular movie of the ultrafast rotation of carbonyl sulphide as a pilot project,” said molecular physicist Evangelos Karamatskos from DESY, Germany’s largest accelerator centre.

Aug 1, 2019

Honour for Kolhapur-born theoretical physicist Atish Dabholkar

Posted by in categories: cosmology, education, physics

Atish Dabholkar, a theoretical physicist from India, has been appointed as the new director of Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy.

He is currently the head of ICTP’s high energy, cosmology and astroparticle physics section. He joined the centre in 2014 on secondment from Sorbonne Université and the National Center for Scientific Research, where he has been a research director since 2007. Mr. Dabholkar will take up his duties as ICTP director with the rank of Assistant Director General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He will succeed Fernando Quevedo, who has led the centre since 2009.

“It’s an honour and a great responsibility to be chosen as ICTP’s next director. ICTP is a one-of-a-kind institution with a very high level of research and a unique global mission for international cooperation through science. It was envisioned as an international hub for excellence in science and as an anchor to build scientific capacity and a culture of science around the globe. This vision remains valid today even after five decades, but needs to be implemented keeping in mind changing realities and priorities,” he said in a statement.

Aug 1, 2019

Tachyon condensation in string field theory

Posted by in category: physics

Thesis (Ph. D.)—Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Physics, 2003.Includes bibliographical references (p. 185–197).

http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/29613

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Physics.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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