Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 2

Oct 18, 2020

Nobel Prize in Physics Winner

Posted by in categories: biotech/medical, cosmology, physics

It’s unbelievable all that’s going on at the moment in astronomy” — DER SPIEGEL — international.

DER SPIEGEL: Wherever black holes are discussed, that picture is shown. And you are now telling us that we don’t really even know what it is?

Genzel: Exactly. It could be that we are looking at the shadow of a black hole, as it is commonly portrayed. But it could also be the outer wall of a jet that is coming directly at us at the speed of light. To know for sure, we need additional measurements. But we have a problem at the moment: the corona pandemic. Most Earth-based telescopes have been switched off.

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Oct 18, 2020

First Observation of Nutation in Magnetic Materials – Fundamental to Making Digital Technology Faster and More Efficient

Posted by in categories: physics, space

Much of the ‘memory’ of the world and all our digital activities are based on media, hard disks, where the information is encoded thanks to magnetism, by orienting the spin of electrons in one direction or the opposite.

An international team of scientists led by the Italian physicist Stefano Bonetti, professor at Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and the Stockholm University, has managed for the first time to observe the ‘nutation’ of these spins in magnetic materials, i.e. the oscillations of their axis during precession. The measured nutation period was of the order of one picosecond: one thousandth of a billionth of a second. The discovery was recently published by Nature Physics.

The axis of a spin performs nutation and precession, as with any object that revolves, from spinning tops to planets. In this research, physicists observed experimentally that the nutation of the magnetic spin axis is 1000 times faster than precession, a curiously similar ratio to that of Earth.

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Oct 16, 2020

Zeptoseconds: New world record in short time measurement

Posted by in categories: chemistry, physics

In 1999, the Egyptian chemist Ahmed Zewail received the Nobel Prize for measuring the speed at which molecules change their shape. He founded femtochemistry using ultrashort laser flashes: the formation and breakup of chemical bonds occurs in the realm of femtoseconds.

Now, atomic physicists at Goethe University in Professor Reinhard Dörner’s team have for the first time studied a process that is shorter than femtoseconds by magnitudes. They measured how long it takes for a photon to cross a hydrogen molecule: about 247 zeptoseconds for the average bond length of the molecule. This is the shortest timespan that has been successfully measured to date.

The scientists carried out the time measurement on a hydrogen molecule (H2) which they irradiated with X-rays from the X-ray laser source PETRA III at the Hamburg accelerator facility DESY. The researchers set the energy of the X-rays so that one photon was sufficient to eject both out of the hydrogen molecule.

Oct 16, 2020

For The First Time, Physicists Have Achieved Superconductivity at Room Temperature

Posted by in categories: materials, physics

A major new milestone has just been achieved in the quest for superconductivity. For the first time, physicists have achieved the resistance-free flow of an electrical current at room temperature — a positively balmy 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit).

This has smashed the previous record of −23 degrees Celsius (−9.4 degrees Fahrenheit), and has brought the prospect of functional superconductivity a huge step forward.

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Oct 16, 2020

Intercontinental comparison of optical atomic clocks through very long baseline interferometry

Posted by in categories: physics, space

The comparison of distant atomic clocks is foundational to international timekeeping, global positioning and tests of fundamental physics. Optica l-fibre links allow the most precise optical clocks to be compared, without degradation, over intracontinental distances up to thousands of kilometres, but intercontinental comparisons remain limited by the performance of satellite transfer techniques. Here we show that very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), although originally developed for radio astronomy and geodesy, can overcome this limit and compare remote clocks through the observation of extragalactic radio sources. We developed dedicated transportable VLBI stations that use broadband detection and demonstrate the comparison of two optical clocks located in Italy and Japan separated by 9,000 km. This system demonstrates performance beyond satellite techniques and can pave the way for future long-term stable international clock comparisons.

Oct 14, 2020

Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez bag the Nobel Prize for Physics

Posted by in categories: cosmology, education, physics

Congratulations from Ogba Educational Clinic.

The 2020 Nobel Prize for Physics has been awarded to Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for their work on black holes.

The prize is worth 10 million Swedish krona (about $1.1 million) and half goes to Penrose, with Genzel and Ghez sharing the other half of the prize.

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Oct 14, 2020

Room-Temperature Superconductivity Achieved for the First Time

Posted by in categories: materials, physics

Physicists have reached a long-sought goal. The catch is that their room-temperature superconductor requires crushing pressures to keep from falling apart.

Oct 14, 2020

Researchers synthesize room temperature superconducting material

Posted by in categories: engineering, physics

Compressing simple molecular solids with hydrogen at extremely high pressures, University of Rochester engineers and physicists have, for the first time, created material that is superconducting at room temperature.

Featured as the cover story in the journal Nature, the work was conducted by the lab of Ranga Dias, an assistant professor of physics and mechanical engineering.

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Oct 9, 2020

Physicists Just Confirmed The Upper Limit For The Speed of Sound in The Universe

Posted by in categories: physics, space

Einstein’s theory of special relativity gave us the speed limit of the Universe — that of light in a vacuum. But the absolute top speed of sound, through any medium, has been somewhat trickier to constrain.

It’s impossible to measure the speed of sound in every single material in existence, but scientists have now managed to pin down an upper limit based on fundamental constants, the universal parameters by which we understand the physics of the Universe.

That speed limit, according to the new calculations, is 36 kilometres per second (22 miles per second). That’s about twice the speed of sound travelling through diamond.

Oct 9, 2020

New Reactor Design Could Produce First Ever Energy-Positive Fusion Reaction

Posted by in categories: energy, physics

Could this be the energy source of the future?

The secret to the SPARC reactor is that its magnets will be built from new high-temperature superconductors that require much less cooling and can produce far more powerful magnetic fields. That means the reactor can be ten times more compact than ITER while achieving similar performance.

As with any cutting-edge technology, converting principles into practice is no simple matter. But the analysis detailed in the papers suggests that the reactor will achieve its goal of producing more energy than it sucks up. So far, all fusion experiments have required more energy to heat the plasma and sustain it than has been generated by the reaction itself.

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