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Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 5

Oct 4, 2020

Astrophysicists figure out the total amount of matter in the universe

Posted by in category: physics

Researchers have performed one of the most precise measurements yet to determine the proportion of matter in the universe.

Oct 4, 2020

Build Your Own Artificial Neural Network. It’s Easy!

Posted by in categories: physics, robotics/AI

The first artificial neural networks weren’t abstractions inside a computer, but actual physical systems made of whirring motors and big bundles of wire. Here I’ll describe how you can build one for yourself using SnapCircuits, a kid’s electronics kit. I’ll also muse about how to build a network that works optically using a webcam. And I’ll recount what I learned talking to the artist Ralf Baecker, who built a network using strings, levers, and lead weights.

I showed the SnapCircuits network last year to John Hopfield, a Princeton University physicist who pioneered neural networks in the 1980s, and he quickly got absorbed in tweaking the system to see what he could get it to do. I was a visitor at the Institute for Advanced Study and spent hours interviewing Hopfield for my forthcoming book on physics and the mind.

The type of network that Hopfield became famous for is a bit different from the deep networks that power image recognition and other A.I. systems today. It still consists of basic computing units—“neurons”—that are wired together, so that each responds to what the others are doing. But the neurons are not arrayed into layers: There is no dedicated input, output, or intermediate stages. Instead the network is a big tangle of signals that can loop back on themselves, forming a highly dynamic system.

Oct 2, 2020

Physicists Harness the Atomic Motion of Graphene to Generate Clean, Limitless Power

Posted by in categories: computing, physics

Researchers build circuit that harnessed the atomic motion of graphene to generate an electrical current that could lead to a chip to replace batteries.

A team of University of Arkansas physicists has successfully developed a circuit capable of capturing graphene’s thermal motion and converting it into an electrical current.

Continue reading “Physicists Harness the Atomic Motion of Graphene to Generate Clean, Limitless Power” »

Sep 30, 2020

Review on Gravitational wave propulsion

Posted by in categories: cosmology, nuclear energy, physics, space travel

Gravitational Wave Propulsion 🤔 ⤵️ check the abstract.


This paper sums up aftereffects of past examinations, including proposed models, so as to construct an advanced hypothetical structure for Gravitational Wave Propulsion. The structure com prises of groups of generators of gravitational waves, which have been hypothesized yet require experimentation, and models of push age. High effectiveness generators depend on cognizant sources, for example synchronized MEMS oscillators, the HTSC Gaser, in light of cognizant turn 2 changes in s-wave/d-wave super conductors, and the atomic electromagnetic wave to gravitational wave up-changing over transducer, in view of dineutrons. After gravitational wave age is effectively demonstrated in the research center, it will be pos-sible to apply an idea created in the field of cosmology. It was discovered that the back-ground vitality thick ness may offer mass to the graviton, which thus may permit gravi tons to produce push. Nearby foundation vitality thickness can be expanded by accusing materials of high dielectric steady in close ness to the wave producing components. Centered Gravitational Waves may likewise create singularities, where the radiation is changed over into a coulomb-like gravitational field. Gravitation al singularities will set a n-body floating framework among them selves, the rocket, and the rest of the assortments of the universe, with clear propulsive impacts. Uses of the current examination will prompt an extraordinary drive framework fit for empowering the quick investigation of the nearby planetary group, the neigh borhood star framework, and potentially the entire system. On a general basis, a vehicle traveling in space requires energy and a reaction mass to accelerate and reach useful speeds. Usually the reaction mass is the mass of the pro- pellant, which in most circumstances has also the role of energy source. Vehicles that are not required to carry re- action masses are more efficient and light weight, but con- ventional ones are limited in scope. It is a fact that, after extraordinary developments, space travel by rocket tech nology has reached its limits and a new paradigm is re- quired to make a big step forward in space propulsion; a step that should enable the exploration of nearby star systems and possibly the whole galaxy. These goals may seem unreachable with the current understanding of physics. Anyway with an open mind and a prag matic approach, it is well known that we are dealing with opinions that are often suggested by the lack of interdisciplinary approach es to complex problems. It often happened that when so called theoretical limits were found wrong, accidental dis- coveries have shown why the good theory was errone- ously applied the first time. An alternative to accidental discoveries are pieces of knowl Review on Gravitational wave propulsion Ching Lee University of Trento, Italy edge gathered from hun- dreds of research papers from different disciplines com- bined in an unusual way to create new concepts. They are normally rejected by experts of their single research field, thus painstaking efforts are required to simply communi- cate the new concept and let it grow in the laboratories. At the and of the last century numerous theoretical efforts have started to show that Gravitational Waves (GWs) have not only astronomical and astrophysicalrelevance, but they also have technological applica tions. Among them, sev- eral theories have approaches identified for telecommuni- cation, imaging, material processing, and space propul- sion. This paper summarizes results of past analyses, in cluding proposed examples, in order to build a modern theoreti cal framework for Gravitational Wave Propulsion. The framework consists of families of generators of gravitational waves, which have been theorized but still require experimentation, and models of thrust generation. High efficiency generators are based on co  herent sources, for instance synchronized MEMS oscillators, the HTSC Gaser, based on coherent spin-2 transitions in s-wave/d wave superconductors, and the nuclear electromagnetic wave to gravitational wave up-converting transducer, based on dineutrons. After gravitational wave generation is successfully proven in the laboratory, it will be pos- sible to apply a concept developed in the field of cosmology. It was found that the back- ground energy density may give mass to the graviton, which in turn may allow gravitons to produce thrust. Local background energy density can be increased by charging materials with high dielectric constant in close proximity to the wave generating elements. Focused Gravita tional Waves may also produce singularities, where the radiation is converted into a coulomb-like gravitational field. Gravitational singularities will set an n-body gravitating system among them selves, the spacecraft, and the remaining bodies of the universe, with obvious propulsive effects. Applications of the present anal ysis will lead to a unique propulsion system capable of enabling the fast exploration of the solar system, the local star system, and possibly the whole galaxy proposed models, so as to construct an advanced hypothetical structure for Gravitational Wave Propulsion. The structure com prises of groups of generators of gravitational waves, which have been hypothesized yet require experimentation, and models of push age. High effectiveness generators depend on cognizant sources, for example synchronized MEMS oscillators, the HTSC Gaser, in light of cognizant turn 2 changes in s-wave/d-wave super conductors, and the atomic electromagnetic wave to gravitational wave up-changing over transducer, in view of dineutrons. After gravitational wave age is effectively demonstrated in the research center, it will be pos-sible to apply an idea created in the field of cosmology. It was discovered that the back-ground vitality thick ness may offer mass to the graviton, which thus may permit gravi tons to produce push. Nearby foundation vitality thickness can be expanded by accusing materials of high dielectric steady in close ness to the wave producing components. Centered Gravitational Waves may likewise create singularities, where the radiation is changed over into a coulomb-like gravitational field. Gravitation al singularities will set a n-body floating framework among them selves, the rocket, and the rest of the assortments of the universe, with clear propulsive impacts. Uses of the current examination will prompt an extraordinary drive framework fit for empowering the quick investigation of the nearby planetary group, the neigh borhood star framework, and potentially the entire system. On a general basis, a vehicle traveling in space requires energy and a reaction mass to accelerate and reach useful speeds. Usually the reaction mass is the mass of the pro- pellant, which in most circumstances has also the role of energy source. Vehicles that are not required to carry re- action masses are more efficient and light weight, but con- ventional ones are limited in scope. It is a fact that, after extraordinary developments, space travel by rocket tech nology has reached its limits and a new paradigm is re- quired to make a big step forward in space propulsion; a step that should enable the exploration of nearby star systems and possibly the whole galaxy. These goals may seem unreachable with the current understanding of physics. Anyway with an open mind and a prag matic approach, it is well known that we are dealing with opinions that are often suggested by the lack of interdisciplinary approach es to complex problems. It often happened that when so called theoretical limits were found wrong, accidental dis- coveries have shown why the good theory was errone- ously applied the first time. An alternative to accidental discoveries are pieces of knowl Review on Gravitational wave propulsion Ching Lee University of Trento, Italy edge gathered from hun- dreds of research papers from different disciplines com- bined in an unusual way to create new concepts. They are normally rejected by experts of their single research field, thus painstaking efforts are required to simply communi- cate the new concept and let it grow in the laboratories. At the and of the last century numerous theoretical efforts have started to show that Gravitational Waves (GWs) have not only astronomical and astrophysicalrelevance, but they also have technological applica tions. Among them, sev- eral theories have approaches identified for telecommuni- cation, imaging, material processing, and space propul- sion. This paper summarizes results of past analyses, in cluding proposed examples, in order to build a modern theoreti cal framework for Gravitational Wave Propulsion. The framework consists of families of generators of gravitational waves, which have been theorized but still require experimentation, and models of thrust generation. High efficiency generators are based on co  herent sources, for instance synchronized MEMS oscillators, the HTSC Gaser, based on coherent spin-2 transitions in s-wave/d wave superconductors, and the nuclear electromagnetic wave to gravitational wave up-converting transducer, based on dineutrons. After gravitational wave generation is successfully proven in the laboratory, it will be pos- sible to apply a concept developed in the field of cosmology. It was found that the back- ground energy density may give mass to the graviton, which in turn may allow gravitons to produce thrust. Local background energy density can be increased by charging materials with high dielectric constant in close proximity to the wave generating elements. Focused Gravita tional Waves may also produce singularities, where the radiation is converted into a coulomb-like gravitational field. Gravitational singularities will set an n-body gravitating system among them selves, the spacecraft, and the remaining bodies of the universe, with obvious propulsive effects. Applications of the present anal ysis will lead to a unique propulsion system capable of enabling the fast exploration of the solar system, the local star system, and possibly the whole galaxy.

Sep 30, 2020

“Holy Grail” –Proof of Cosmic Objects Without a Hard Surface Confined Within an Invisible Boundary

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

O,.o.


Albert Einstein described black holes as strange objects “where God divided by zero.” An international team of astrophysicists has now confirmed that black holes are a distinct “species” from neutron stars –comparable to black holes in mass and size but confined within a hard surface, unlike black holes, an exotic cosmic object without a hard surface predicted by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity that do not have a surface, and are confined within an invisible boundary, called an event horizon, from within which nothing, not even light, can escape.

Hidden in NASA Archival X-ray Data

Continue reading “‘Holy Grail’ --Proof of Cosmic Objects Without a Hard Surface Confined Within an Invisible Boundary” »

Sep 29, 2020

Why disordered light-harvesting systems produce ordered outcomes

Posted by in categories: chemistry, energy, nanotechnology, physics

Scientists typically prefer to work with ordered systems. However, a diverse team of physicists and biophysicists from the University of Groningen found that individual light-harvesting nanotubes with disordered molecular structures still transport light energy in the same way. By combining spectroscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical physics, they discovered how disorder at the molecular level is effectively averaged out at the microscopic scale. The results were published on 28 September in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

The double-walled light-harvesting nanotubes self-assemble from molecular building blocks. They are inspired by the multi-walled tubular antenna network of photosynthetic bacteria found in nature. The nanotubes absorb and transport light energy, although it was not entirely clear how. “The nanotubes have similar sizes but they are all different at the with the molecules arranged in a disordered way,” explains Maxim Pshenichnikov, Professor of Ultrafast Spectroscopy at the University of Groningen.

Sep 27, 2020

A Physicist Has Come Up With Math That Makes ‘Paradox-Free’ Time Travel Plausible

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, space, time travel

No one has yet managed to travel through time – at least to our knowledge – but the question of whether or not such a feat would be theoretically possible continues to fascinate scientists.

As movies such as The Terminator, Donnie Darko, Back to the Future and many others show, moving around in time creates a lot of problems for the fundamental rules of the Universe: if you go back in time and stop your parents from meeting, for instance, how can you possibly exist in order to go back in time in the first place?

It’s a monumental head-scratcher known as the ‘grandfather paradox’, but now a physics student Germain Tobar, from the University of Queensland in Australia, says he has worked out how to “square the numbers” to make time travel viable without the paradoxes.

Continue reading “A Physicist Has Come Up With Math That Makes ‘Paradox-Free’ Time Travel Plausible” »

Sep 23, 2020

Unlocking a 140-year-old secret mystery in physics

Posted by in category: physics

Circa 2019


Unlocking the physical characteristics of semiconductors in much greater detail.

Sep 22, 2020

Physicists Just Discovered a Brand New Type of Superconductor

Posted by in categories: energy, physics

Scientists have long theorised that there are other types of superconductor out there waiting to be discovered, and it turns out they were right: new research has identified a g-wave superconductor for the first time, a major development in this area of physics.

Superconductors are materials that offer no electrical resistance, so electricity can pass through them with close to 100 percent efficiency.

That sounds great when you think about the potential of super-efficient power grids that don’t lose energy to heat. But there’s a catch. Materials that are able to act in this way usually need to be cooled to ultra-low temperatures before the actual superconductivity starts happening.

Continue reading “Physicists Just Discovered a Brand New Type of Superconductor” »

Sep 21, 2020

Why there is no speed limit in the superfluid universe

Posted by in category: physics

Physicists from Lancaster University have established why objects moving through superfluid helium-3 lack a speed limit in a continuation of earlier Lancaster research.

Helium-3 is a rare isotope of helium, in which one neutron is missing. It becomes at extremely low temperatures, enabling unusual properties such as a lack of friction for moving objects.

It was thought that the of objects moving through was fundamentally limited to the critical Landau velocity, and that exceeding this speed limit would destroy the superfluid. Prior experiments in Lancaster have found that it is not a strict rule and objects can move at much greater speeds without destroying the fragile superfluid state.

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