Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 5

Dec 14, 2023

Newly developed material gulps down hydrogen, spits it out, protects fusion reactor walls

Posted by in categories: engineering, nuclear energy, physics

University of Wisconsin–Madison engineers have used a spray coating technology to produce a new workhorse material that can withstand the harsh conditions inside a fusion reactor.

The advance, detailed in a paper published recently in the journal Physica Scripta, could enable more efficient compact fusion reactors that are easier to repair and maintain.

“The fusion community is urgently looking for new manufacturing approaches to economically produce large plasma-facing components in fusion reactors,” says Mykola Ialovega, a postdoctoral researcher in and engineering physics at UW–Madison and lead author on the paper. “Our technology shows considerable improvements over current approaches. With this research, we are the first to demonstrate the benefits of using cold spray coating technology for fusion applications.”

Dec 14, 2023

Gravitational Waves Unveil Thermal Secrets in Neutron Star Mergers

Posted by in categories: physics, space, supercomputing

Simulations of binary neutron star mergers suggest that future detectors will distinguish between different models of hot nuclear matter.

Researchers used supercomputer simulations to explore how neutron star mergers affect gravitational waves, finding a key relationship with the remnant’s temperature. This study aids future advancements in detecting and understanding hot nuclear matter.

Exploring neutron star mergers and gravitational waves.

Dec 14, 2023

A bend in universe: Researchers may have discovered the cosmic string proof

Posted by in categories: physics, space

A recent analysis of a peculiar pair of galaxies located billions of light-years away suggests the possibility of a cosmic string —a hypothetical feature in the fabric of the Universe. Initially considered distinct, the two galaxies may be duplicated images caused by gravitational lensing, a phenomenon where space-time bends around foreground mass, acting like a lens.

Led by researchers of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, the study identifies a cosmic string candidate, CSc-1, in the cosmic microwave background, the lingering radiation from the Universe’s birth. Cosmic strings, theoretical one-dimensional wrinkles formed at the dawn of time, are believed to be highly dense and massive, potentially extending across the entire Universe.

Observationally proving cosmic strings is challenging because their effects can resemble other phenomena. However, minute differences in their impact distinguish them. The researchers focused on a galaxy pair, SDSSJ110429, within CSc-1 as a potential cosmic string signature. Gravitational lensing typically involves a foreground mass causing observable distortions, but SDSSJ110429 lacks evident foreground mass or distorted light.

Dec 14, 2023

AI method for describing soft matter opens up new chapter in density functional theory

Posted by in categories: mathematics, physics, robotics/AI

“In the study, we demonstrate how artificial intelligence can be used to carry out fundamental theoretical physics that addresses the behavior of fluids and other complex soft matter systems,” says Prof. Dr. Matthias Schmidt, chair of Theoretical Physics II at the University of Bayreuth.

Scientists from Bayreuth have developed a new method for studying liquid and soft matter using artificial intelligence. In a study now published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they open up a new chapter in density functional theory.

We live in a highly technologized world where basic research is the engine of innovation, in a dense and complex web of interrelationships and interdependencies. The published research provides new methods that can have a great influence on widespread simulation techniques, so that complex substances can be investigated on computers more quickly, more precisely and more deeply.

Continue reading “AI method for describing soft matter opens up new chapter in density functional theory” »

Dec 14, 2023

Can Signs of Life be detected from Saturn’s Frigid Moon?

Posted by in categories: energy, physics, space

Enceladus’ ice plumes may hold the building blocks of life. Researchers have shown unambiguous laboratory evidence that amino acids transported in the ice plumes of Saturn’s moon, Eceladus, can survive impact speeds of up to 4.2 km/s, supporting their detection during sampling by spacecraft.

As astrophysics technology and research continue to advance, one question persists: is there life elsewhere in the universe? The Milky Way galaxy alone has hundreds of billions of celestial bodies, but scientists often look for three crucial elements in their ongoing search: water, energy and organic material. Evidence indicates that Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus is an ‘ocean world’ that contains all three, making it a prime target in the search for life.

During its 20-year mission, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft discovered that ice plumes spew from Enceladus’ surface at approximately 800 miles per hour (400 m/s). These plumes provide an excellent opportunity to collect samples and study the composition of Enceladus’ oceans and potential habitability.

Dec 14, 2023

Life might have been possible just seconds after the Big Bang

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics

Life may be much, much older than Earth.

Dec 12, 2023

Is Consciousness First in Virtual Reality?

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, physics, virtual reality

The prevailing scientific paradigm is that matter is primary and everything, including consciousness can be derived from the laws governing matter. Although the scientific explanation of consciousness on these lines has not been realized, in this view it is only a matter of time before consciousness will be explained through neurobiological activity in the brain, and nothing else. There is an alternative view that holds that it is fundamentally impossible to explain how subjectivity can arise solely out of material processes-“the hard problem of consciousness”-and instead consciousness should be regarded in itself as a primary force in nature. This view attempts to derive, for example, the laws of physics from models of consciousness, instead of the other way around. While as scientists we can understand and have an intuition for the first paradigm, it is very difficult to understand what “consciousness is primary” might mean since it has no intuitive scientific grounding. Here we show that worlds experienced through virtual reality (VR) are such that consciousness is a first order phenomenon. We discuss the Interface Theory of Perception which claims that in physical reality perceptions are not veridical and that we do not see the “truth” but that perception is based on evolutionary payoffs. We show that this theory may provide an accurate description of perception and consciousness within VR, and we put forward an experimental study that could throw light on this. We conclude that VR does offer an experimental frame that provides intuition with respect to the idea that “consciousness is first” and what this might mean regarding the perceived world. However, we do not draw any conclusions about the veracity of this notion with respect to physical reality or question the emergence of consciousness from brain function.

Keywords: consciousness; interface theory of perception; perception; presence; real vs. virtual; virtual reality.

Copyright © 2022 Slater and Sanchez-Vives.

Dec 12, 2023

New Breakthrough Theory Lets Physics Predict Evolution — Assembly Theory Explained

Posted by in categories: evolution, physics

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Dec 11, 2023

Observer Theory

Posted by in categories: physics, space

Philosophy of science.

We call it perception. We call it measurement. We call it analysis. But in the end it’s about how we take the world as it is, and derive from it the impression of it that we have in our minds.

We might have thought that we could do science “purely objectively” without any reference to observers or their nature. But what we’ve discovered particularly dramatically in our Physics Project is that the nature of us as observers is critical even in determining the most fundamental laws we attribute to the universe.

Continue reading “Observer Theory” »

Dec 8, 2023

Space telescope spots ‘superflares’ 10,000 times brighter than Sun — Study

Posted by in categories: energy, physics, space

Scientists have developed a model to better understand the physics of the powerful superflares emitted by stars far beyond our solar system.

Solar flares, which are rapid and strong bursts of energy and radiation that originate from the Sun’s surface, are known to be emitted into space by our Sun.

NASA’s Kepler and TESS missions, however, have discovered several stars may produce superflares that are 100–10,000 times brighter than those emitted by our Sun.

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