Archive for the ‘physics’ category: Page 6

Oct 10, 2023

“Hubbard Excitons” — Caltech Physics Discovery Could Lead to Incredible New Technologies

Posted by in categories: computing, physics, solar power, space, sustainability

Caltech researchers have discovered Hubbard excitons, which are excitons bound magnetically, offering new avenues for exciton-based technological applications.

In art, the negative space in a painting can be just as important as the painting itself. Something similar is true in insulating materials, where the empty spaces left behind by missing electrons play a crucial role in determining the material’s properties. When a negatively charged electron is excited by light, it leaves behind a positive hole. Because the hole and the electron are oppositely charged, they are attracted to each other and form a bond. The resulting pair, which is short-lived, is known as an exciton [pronounced exit-tawn].

Excitons are integral to many technologies, such as solar panels, photodetectors, and sensors. They are also a key part of light-emitting diodes found in televisions and digital display screens. In most cases, the exciton pairs are bound by electrical, or electrostatic, forces, also known as Coulomb interactions.

Oct 9, 2023

Unifying matter, energy and consciousness: Applying physics to a thorny topic

Posted by in categories: physics, robotics/AI

With the rise of brain-interface technology and artificial intelligence that can imitate brain functions, understanding the nature of consciousness and how it interacts with reality is not just an age-old philosophical question but also a salient challenge for humanity.

Can AI become conscious, and how would we know? Should we incorporate human or animal cells, such as neurons, into machines and robots? Would they be conscious and have subjective experiences? Does consciousness reduce to physicalism, or is it fundamental? And if machine-brain interaction influenced you to commit a crime, or caused a crime, would you be responsible beyond a reasonable doubt? Do we have a free will?

AI and computer science specialist Dr. Mahendra Samarawickrama, winner of the Australian Computer Society’s Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Professional of the year, has applied his knowledge of physics and artificial neural networks to this thorny topic.

Oct 9, 2023

Chasing interactions between bacteria provide insights into collective behavior

Posted by in categories: chemistry, physics

A new model demonstrates that chasing interactions can induce dynamical patterns in the organization of bacterial species. Structural patterns can be created due to the chasing interactions between two bacterial species.

In the new model, scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPI-DS) describe how on the individual level can result in a global of . Their findings provide insights into general mechanisms of collective behavior. The findings are published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

In a recent study, scientists from the department Living Matter Physics at MPI-DS developed a model describing communication pathways in . Bacteria show an overall organizational pattern by sensing the concentration of chemicals in their environment and adapting their motion.

Oct 9, 2023

Invisible Electron ‘Demon’ Discovered in Odd Superconductor

Posted by in categories: materials, physics

Physicists have long suspected that hunks of metal could vibrate in a peculiar way that would be all but invisible. Now physicists have spotted these “demon modes.”

Oct 9, 2023

Could a new law of physics support the idea we’re living in a computer simulation?

Posted by in categories: computing, Elon Musk, physics

A University of Portsmouth physicist has explored whether a new law of physics could support the much-debated theory that we are simply characters in an advanced virtual world.

The simulated hypothesis proposes that what humans experience is actually an artificial reality, much like a computer simulation, in which they themselves are constructs.

The theory is popular among a number of well-known figures including Elon Musk, and within a branch of science known as information , which suggests is fundamentally made up of bits of information.

Oct 8, 2023

Meta-Learning Machines in a Single Lifelong Trial

Posted by in categories: information science, physics, robotics/AI

The most widely used machine learning algorithms were designed by humans and thus are hindered by our cognitive biases and limitations. Can we also construct meta-learning algorithms that can learn better learning algorithms so that our self-improving AIs have no limits other than those inherited from computability and physics? This question has been a main driver of my research since I wrote a thesis on it in 1987. In the past decade, it has become a driver of many other people’s research as well. Here I summarize our work starting in 1994 on meta-reinforcement learning with self-modifying policies in a single lifelong trial, and — since 2003 — mathematically optimal meta-learning through the self-referential Gödel Machine. This talk was previously presented at meta-learning workshops at ICML 2020 and NeurIPS 2021. Many additional publications on meta-learning can be found at https://people.idsia.ch/~juergen/metalearning.html.

Jürgen Schmidhuber.
Director, AI Initiative, KAUST
Scientific Director of the Swiss AI Lab IDSIA
Co-Founder & Chief Scientist, NNAISENSE

Continue reading “Meta-Learning Machines in a Single Lifelong Trial” »

Oct 8, 2023

AIs accurately predicted path of Hurricane Lee a week out

Posted by in categories: climatology, physics, robotics/AI, supercomputing

To make its weather predictions, it analyzes 60 million daily observations from satellite, aircraft, and ground-based reports, using what we know about atmospheric physics to determine what the weather is likely to be like across the globe over the next 15 days.

This can literally save lives — if people know in advance that hurricanes or winter storms are heading their way, they can take action to prepare — but because the model is so complex, it must be run on a supercomputer over the course of several hours, which also makes it expensive.

The AIs: AI-based weather forecasting models are starting to catch up with traditional ones, like the European Model.

Oct 7, 2023

Saturday Citations: Hippo maxillofacial issues; implicit biases in the game of kings; AI masters Street Fighter

Posted by in categories: cosmology, physics, robotics/AI

They announced the Nobel prizes this week! But did any of the recipients teach an AI to play Street Fighter? Here are a few of this week’s stories not yet lauded by international committees of scientists, but which we thought were pretty good:

Even if you think a galaxy is old enough to drink, you should probably go ahead and ask for ID before you serve them. The earliest galaxies in the universe captured by the James Webb Space Telescope appeared too bright, massive and way too old to have formed that soon after the Big Bang, presenting a problem for astronomers and their favorite model, the standard model of cosmology.

Recently, a team of physicists at Northwestern University used computer simulations to model galaxy formation after the Big Bang and demonstrate that (at least in the model universe) stars formed in bursts, producing light of enormously greater intensity than a modern galaxy like, say, Andromeda, where is steady and the number of stars gradually increases over time.

Oct 7, 2023

New ‘assembly theory’ unifies physics and biology to explain evolution and complexity

Posted by in categories: alien life, evolution, physics

An international team of researchers has developed a new theoretical framework that bridges physics and biology to provide a unified approach for understanding how complexity and evolution emerge in nature.

This new work on “assembly ,” published today in Nature, represents a major advance in our fundamental comprehension of biological evolution and how it is governed by the physical laws of the universe. The paper is titled “Assembly Theory Explains and Quantifies Selection and Evolution.”

This research builds on the team’s previous work developing assembly theory as an empirically validated approach to life detection, with implications for the search for and efforts to evolve new life forms in the laboratory.

Oct 6, 2023

Attoseconds Are Now Nobel-Prize Winning Physics. So What Are They?

Posted by in categories: chemistry, physics

The Nobel Physics Prize was awarded on Tuesday to three scientists for their work on attoseconds, which are almost unimaginably short periods of time.

Their work using lasers gives scientists a tool to observe and possibly even manipulate electrons, which could spur breakthroughs in fields such as electronics and chemistry, experts told AFP.

Attoseconds are a billionth of a billionth of a second.

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