Archive for the ‘quantum physics’ category: Page 4

Oct 30, 2022

Scientists Dug 12km Into The Earth And Discovered This

Posted by in categories: quantum physics, space

Physics-Astronomy.com, TheSpaceAcademy, Physics, Quantum, Technology, BlackHole.

Oct 30, 2022

First 3D quantum accelerometer could let ships navigate without GPS

Posted by in category: quantum physics

A device that measures acceleration very precisely using quantum effects could be used for navigation when GPS is unavailable.

Oct 30, 2022

Is A Subatomic World Possible And What Would It Look Like?

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

While the quantum world is not far away, shrinking down to the size of an atom to experience the quantum realm would be difficult for humans.

Oct 29, 2022

Electrons with Planckian scattering in strange metals follow standard rules of orbital motion in a magnet

Posted by in categories: materials, quantum physics

Strange metals, or non-Fermi liquids, are distinct states of matter that have been observed in different quantum materials, including cuprate superconductors. These states are characterized by unusual conductive properties, such as a resistivity that is linearly associated with temperature (T-linear).

In the strange phase of matter, electrons undergo what is known as “Planckian dissipation,” a high scattering rate that linearly increases as the . This T-linear, strong electron scattering is anomalous for metals, which typically present a quadratic (T2), as predicted by the standard theory of metals.

Researchers at Université de Sherbrooke in Canada, Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses in France, and other institutes worldwide have recently carried out a study exploring the possibility that the resistivity of is not only associated with temperature, but also with an applied . This magnetic field linearity had been previously observed in some cuprates and pnictides, with some physicists suggesting that it could also be linked to Planckian dissipation.

Oct 29, 2022

Novel thermal phases of topological quantum matter in the lab

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. The experiment was conducted using quantum simulator at IBM.

Quantum simulators were first conjectured by the Nobel Prize laureate Richard Feynman in 1982. Ordinary classical computers are inefficient at simulating systems of interacting quantum particles These new simulators are genuinely quantum and can be controlled very precisely. They replicate other quantum systems that are harder to manipulate and whose physical properties remain very much unknown.

In an article published in the journal Quantum Information, the researchers describe using a with superconducting qubits at IBM to replicate materials known as topological insulators at finite temperature, and measure for the first time their topological quantum phases.

Oct 27, 2022

Atom-Implanted Silicon Waveguides Get an Upgrade

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Improved fabrication methods for qubits made from erbium-doped silicon waveguides give these qubits the key prerequisites for becoming a contender for future quantum computers.

From superconducting circuits to single atoms, there are many quantum-bit—or “qubit”—systems to choose from when building a quantum computer. New to the game are qubits made from individual erbium atoms implanted in silicon waveguides. Each of these qubits can be controlled and measured with telecom-wavelength light, making the platform practical to implement. But the platform has unfavorable properties that have put that implementation on hold. Now Andreas Reiserer of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Germany and his colleagues have improved the qubit’s fabrication and detection methods, such that it is viable for near-future use in quantum computing technologies [1]. The results suggest that erbium-doped silicon waveguides could make more promising qubits than previously thought.

One problem with previous erbium-doped silicon waveguides came from the uneven clustering of erbium atoms around impurities in the waveguide. This clustering meant that the erbium atoms had different transition frequencies, making it difficult to simultaneously address multiple atoms and to perform basic operations between them—a necessary component of quantum information processing.

Oct 27, 2022

Study Suggests Spins of ‘Brain Water’ Could Mean Our Minds Use Quantum Computation

Posted by in categories: computing, neuroscience, quantum physics

In the ongoing work to realize the full potential of quantum computing, scientists could perhaps try peering into our own brains to see what’s possible: A new study suggests that the brain actually has a lot in common with a quantum computer.

Oct 26, 2022

Scientists discover exotic quantum state at room temperature

Posted by in categories: energy, quantum physics

For the first time, physicists have observed novel quantum effects in a topological insulator at room temperature. This breakthrough, published as the cover article of the October issue of Nature Materials, came when Princeton scientists explored a topological material based on the element bismuth.

The scientists have used topological insulators to demonstrate for more than a decade, but this experiment is the first time these effects have been observed at room temperature. Typically, inducing and observing quantum states in topological insulators requires temperatures around absolute zero, which is equal to-459 degrees Fahrenheit (or-273 degrees Celsius).

This finding opens up a new range of possibilities for the development of efficient quantum technologies, such as spin-based electronics, which may potentially replace many current electronic systems for higher energy efficiency.

Oct 26, 2022

Graphs may prove key in search for Holy Grail of quantum error correction

Posted by in categories: computing, mathematics, quantum physics

In February 2019, JQI Fellow Alicia Kollár, who is also an assistant professor of physics at UMD, bumped into Adrian Chapman, then a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Sydney, at a quantum information conference. Although the two came from very different scientific backgrounds, they quickly discovered that their research had a surprising commonality. They both shared an interest in graph theory, a field of math that deals with points and the connections between them.

Chapman found graphs through his work in —a field that deals with protecting fragile quantum information from errors in an effort to build ever-larger quantum computers. He was looking for new ways to approach a long-standing search for the Holy Grail of quantum error correction: a way of encoding quantum information that is resistant to errors by construction and doesn’t require active correction. Kollár had been pursuing new work in graph theory to describe her photon-on-a-chip experiments, but some of her results turned out to be the missing piece in Chapman’s puzzle.

Their ensuing collaboration resulted in a new tool that aids in the search for new quantum error correction schemes—including the Holy Grail of self-correcting quantum error correction. They published their findings recently in the journal Physical Review X Quantum.

Oct 26, 2022

Entanglement-enhanced matter-wave interferometry in a high-finesse cavity

Posted by in categories: mapping, particle physics, quantum physics

Light-pulse matter-wave interferometers exploit the quantized momentum kick given to atoms during absorption and emission of light to split atomic wave packets so that they traverse distinct spatial paths at the same time. Additional momentum kicks then return the atoms to the same point in space to interfere the two matter-wave wave packets. The key to the precision of these devices is the encoding of information in the phase ϕ that appears in the superposition of the two quantum trajectories within the interferometer. This phase must be estimated from quantum measurements to extract the desired information. For N atoms, the phase estimation is fundamentally limited by the independent quantum collapse of each atom to an r.m.s. angular uncertainty \(\Delta {\theta }_{{\rm{SQL}}}=1/\sqrt{N}\) rad, known as the standard quantum limit (SQL)2.

Here we demonstrate a matter-wave interferometer31,32 with a directly observed interferometric phase noise below the SQL, a result that combines two of the most striking features of quantum mechanics: the concept that a particle can appear to be in two places at once and entanglement between distinct particles. This work is also a harbinger of future quantum many-body simulations with cavities26,27,28,29 that will explore beyond mean-field physics by directly modifying and probing quantum fluctuations or in which the quantum measurement process induces a phase transition30.

Quantum entanglement between the atoms allows the atoms to conspire together to reduce their total quantum noise relative to their total signal1,3. Such entanglement has been generated between atoms using direct collisional33,34,35,36,37,38,39 or Coulomb40,41 interactions, including relative atom number squeezing between matter waves in spatially separated traps33,35,39 and mapping of internal entanglement onto the relative atom number in different momentum states42. A trapped matter-wave interferometer with relative number squeezing was realized in ref. 35, but the interferometer’s phase was antisqueezed and thus the phase resolution was above the SQL.

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