БЛОГ

Archive for the ‘quantum physics’ category: Page 638

Apr 5, 2016

Laser technique promises super-fast and super-secure quantum cryptography

Posted by in categories: encryption, quantum physics

A new method of implementing an ‘unbreakable’ quantum cryptographic system is able to transmit information at rates more than ten times faster than previous attempts.

Researchers have developed a new method to overcome one of the main issues in implementing a quantum cryptography system, raising the prospect of a useable ‘unbreakable’ method for sending sensitive information hidden inside particles of light.

By ‘seeding’ one inside another, the researchers, from the University of Cambridge and Toshiba Research Europe, have demonstrated that it is possible to distribute encryption keys at rates between two and six orders of magnitude higher than earlier attempts at a real-world quantum cryptography system. The results are reported in the journal Nature Photonics.

Continue reading “Laser technique promises super-fast and super-secure quantum cryptography” »

Apr 5, 2016

Physicists just discovered a new state of matter called ‘quantum spin liquid’

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers with the University of Cambridge say they have the first real evidence of a new state of matter, some 40 years after it was first theorized.

Known as “quantum spin liquid,” the matter states causes normally unbreakable electrons to fracture into pieces, called “Majorana fermions.” These fermions are an important discovery: Physicists believe the material is crucial to further develop quantum computing. Computers employing Majorana fermions would be able to carry out calculations beyond the scope of modern computers quickly, they say.

Quantum spin liquid explains some of the odd behaviors inside magnetic materials. In these materials, the electrons should behave like small bar magnets, all aligning towards magnetic north when a material is cooled. But not all magnetic materials do this — if the material contains quantum spin liquid, the electrons don’t all line up and become entangled.

Continue reading “Physicists just discovered a new state of matter called ‘quantum spin liquid’” »

Apr 5, 2016

Scientists have just discovered a new state of matter

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers have just discovered evidence of a mysterious new state of matter in a real material. The state is known as ‘quantum spin liquid’ and it causes electrons — one of the fundamental, indivisible building blocks of matter — to break down into smaller quasiparticles.

Scientists had first predicted the existence of this state of matter in certain magnetic materials 40 years ago, but despite multiple hints of its existence, they’ve never been able to detect evidence of it in nature. So it’s pretty exciting that they’ve now caught a glimpse of quantum spin liquid, and the bizarre fermions that accompany it, in a two-dimensional, graphene-like material.

“This is a new quantum state of matter, which has been predicted but hasn’t been seen before,” said one of the researchers, Johannes Knolle, from the University of Cambridge in the UK.

Continue reading “Scientists have just discovered a new state of matter” »

Apr 4, 2016

Quantum computing: Game changer or security threat?

Posted by in categories: computing, finance, quantum physics, security

Definitely a game changer; security threat depends on who gets the technology adopted on a broad scale first prior to other countries (China? USA? Australia? Russia? UK? CAN?, etc.)


Quantum computing offers financial institutions the prospect of faster transactions and lower trading costs, but is it also a threat to security?

Read more

Apr 4, 2016

Quantum physics has just been found hiding in one of the most important mathematical models of all time

Posted by in categories: information science, mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics, space

Game theory is a branch of mathematics that looks at how groups solve complex problems. The Schrödinger equation is the foundational equation of quantum mechanics — the area of physics focused on the smallest particles in the Universe. There’s no reason to expect one to have anything to do with the other.

But according to a team of French physicists, it’s possible to translate a huge number of problems in game theory into the language of quantum mechanics. In a new paper, they show that electrons and fish follow the exact same mathematics.

Schrödinger is famous in popular culture for his weird cat, but he’s famous to physicists for being the first to write down an equation that fully describes the weird things that happen when you try to do experiments on the fundamental constituents of matter. He realised that you can’t describe electrons or atoms or any of the other smallest pieces of the Universe as billiard balls that will be exactly where you expect them to be exactly when you expect them to be there.

Continue reading “Quantum physics has just been found hiding in one of the most important mathematical models of all time” »

Apr 4, 2016

New state of matter detected in a two-dimensional material

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons — thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature — to break into pieces.

The researchers, including physicists from the University of Cambridge, measured the first signatures of these fractional particles, known as Majorana fermions, in a two-dimensional material with a structure similar to graphene. Their experimental results successfully matched with one of the main theoretical models for a , known as a Kitaev model. The results are reported in the journal Nature Materials.

Quantum spin liquids are mysterious states of matter which are thought to be hiding in certain magnetic materials, but had not been conclusively sighted in nature.

Read more

Apr 3, 2016

New quantum distillation method allows measuring coherence of quantum states

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

One of the main principles of quantum physics is the superposition of states. Systems are simultaneously in different states, i.e. “alive and dead” at the same time such as Schrödinger’s cat, until someone measures them and the system opts for one of the possibilities. As long as the superposition lasts the system is said to be in a coherent state. In real systems, sets of diverse elemental particles or atoms existing in a state of superposition, for example, in different positions simultaneously, with different levels of energy, or with two opposite spin orientations, have weak coherence: the superposition is broken easily by the vibrations associated with temperature and the interactions with the environment.

In the scientific article, researchers from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Department of Physics Andreas Winter and Dong Yang propose a groundbreaking method with which to measure the degree of coherence in any given quantum state. The researchers created simple formulas to calculate how much “pure coherence” is contained in a given quantum state, by answering two fundamental questions: How efficiently can one transform the state into “pure coherence”? And how efficient is the reverse process?

“At first the quantum state must be distilled. We must see how much coherence can be extracted from it,” explains Andreas Winter, to later “once again form a noisy state in which the coherence is diluted.” The distillation and dilution process allows measuring the strength of coherence of the initial state of superposition with experiments which can be tailored to each particular case. This is an outstanding contribution to the study of quantum physics given that “traditionally, to measure the degree of coherence of a superposition it was necessary to be able to measure the visibility of interference fringes, linked to standardised experiments,” Winter highlights. “With our approach, in contrast, the experiment can be adapted to every state in order to make the quantum coherence manifest itself better.”

Continue reading “New quantum distillation method allows measuring coherence of quantum states” »

Apr 3, 2016

New link between quantum computing and black hole may solve information loss problem

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, quantum physics

Some more words on this idea that black holes are quantum computers.

Read more

Apr 2, 2016

All quantum communication involves nonlocality

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Researchers of CWI, University of Gdansk, Gdansk University of Technology, Adam Mickiewicz University and the University of Cambridge have proven that quantum communication is based on nonlocality. They show that whenever quantum communication is more efficient than classical communication, it must be possible find a nonlocal correlation somewhere. Their paper ‘Quantum communication complexity advantage implies violation of a Bell inequality’, appeared in this month’s issue of the influential journal PNAS.

It has long been known that predicts counterintuitive effects such as instantaneous interaction at a distance between entangled particles. This teleportation effect, which Albert Einstein famously called ‘spooky action at a distance,’ was long thought to show that the theory of quantum mechanics was incomplete. However, in 1964, physicist J.S. Bell proved that no theory involving the principle of locality can ever reproduce all predictions of quantum mechanics. In other words, it is impossible to find classical explanations for quantum correlations. This evidence for the existence of nonlocality became known as Bell’s inequality.

For a long time, the existence of was merely of interest to philosophically minded physicists, and was considered an exotic peculiarity rather than a useful resource for practical problems in physics or computer science. This has changed dramatically in recent years. Quantum correlation proved to be very useful in information processing. In several communication tasks, using quantum effects substantially reduced the communication complexity: the minimum number of steps necessary to complete a certain task between two parties. In such cases, there is a so-called quantum advantage in communication complexity.

Read more

Mar 31, 2016

Is the black hole at our galaxy’s centre a quantum computer? – Sabine Hossenfelder Essays

Posted by in categories: computing, cosmology, quantum physics

Black-hole computing.

Might nature’s bottomless pits actually be ultra-efficient quantum computers? That could explain why data never dies.

by Sabine Hossenfelder

Continue reading “Is the black hole at our galaxy’s centre a quantum computer? – Sabine Hossenfelder Essays” »