Archive for the ‘quantum physics’ category: Page 7

Dec 25, 2023

Logical quantum processor based on reconfigurable atom arrays

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

Bluvstein, D., Evered, S.J., Geim, A.A. et al. Logical quantum processor based on reconfigurable atom arrays. Nature (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06927-3

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Dec 25, 2023

Quantum Batteries Could Provide a New Kind of Energy Storage by Messing With Time

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

In a typical battery, charged ions zip one way through a sea of other particles as the battery recharges, before racing back in the other direction to release the stored energy on cue.

Back and forth the ions go, some getting diverted along the way, until the capacity of the battery is drained, and it loses energy too quickly to be of any use.

But physicists, good on them, are imagining new ways of storing energy in handy portable devices by drawing on a strange quantum phenomenon that twists time, amongst other unusual happenings.

Dec 24, 2023

Scaling Up a Trapped-Ion Quantum Computer

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Major technical improvements to a quantum computer based on trapped ions could bring a large-scale version closer to reality.

Scientists are exploring various platforms for future large-scale quantum computation. Among the leading contenders, those in which the quantum bits (qubits) are trapped ions stand out for their low-error operation. However, scaling up such platforms to the millions of qubits needed for utility-scale quantum computing is a daunting task. Now Steven Moses at Quantinuum in Colorado and colleagues describe an impressive new trapped-ion quantum computer, the Quantinuum System Model H2, in which they have been able to increase the number of qubits (from 20 to 32) without increasing the error rate [1]. The researchers have put this system through its paces with full component-level testing, a suite of industry-standard benchmark tests, and a set of diverse applications.

In a typical trapped-ion quantum computer, a linear chain of ions is confined by an electric potential using direct-current (dc) and radio-frequency (rf) fields. Whereas the ion-trap apparatus can be at any temperature, the ions themselves need to be laser cooled to near their ground state. Their motion can then be quantized, and the resulting motional modes can be used to entangle any pair of ions in the chain—a requirement for performing quantum operations. However, controlling individual ions in a long chain comes with its own technical difficulties, and it is unlikely that a million qubits—as needed to build a universal, fault-tolerant quantum computer [2]—could be trapped in a single potential.

Dec 24, 2023

The strangest coincidence in physics: The AdS/CFT correspondence

Posted by in categories: energy, holograms, quantum physics

Attempts to turn string theory into a workable theory of nature have led to the potential conclusion that our universe is a hologram—that what we perceive as three spatial dimensions is actually composed of only two. The greatest realization of this hologram-led program is a proposal that goes by the awkward and clunky name of the AdS/CFT correspondence, first proposed by string theorist Juan Maldacena in the late 1990s.

The AdS/CFT correspondence is not a solution to the problems posed by per se, but a statement motivated by advances in the theory when one takes the holographic principle seriously. It is also not a by itself, but it does tell us that we are not entirely misguided when we make the bold claim that we live in a , and begin to dream about what that revelation might entail.

We need to, briefly I assure you, unpack these acronyms to see how powerful this connection is, and what it might teach us about the wider . The “AdS” stands for anti-de Sitter, which is a particular kind of solution to Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The name comes from Dutch physicist Willem de Sitter, who constructed a mock universe that was empty of all matter and energy with the exception of a strong outwards curvature.

Dec 24, 2023

Why string theory requires extra dimensions

Posted by in categories: mathematics, particle physics, quantum physics

String theory found its origins in an attempt to understand the nascent experiments revealing the strong nuclear force. Eventually another theory, one based on particles called quarks and force carriers called gluons, would supplant it, but in the deep mathematical bones of the young string theory physicists would find curious structures, half-glimpsed ghosts, that would point to something more. Something deeper.

String claims that what we call —the point-like entities that wander freely, interact, and bind together to make up the bulk of material existence—are nothing but. Instead, there is but a single kind of fundamental object: the string. These strings, each one existing at the smallest possible limit of existence itself, vibrate. And the way those strings vibrate dictates how they manifest themselves in the larger universe. Like notes on a strummed guitar, a string vibrating with one mode will appear to us as an electron, while another vibrating at a different frequency will appear as a photon, and so on.

String theory is an audacious attempt at a theory of everything. A single mathematical framework that explains the particles that make us who and what we are along with the forces that act as the fundamental messengers among those particles. They are all, every quark in the cosmos and every photon in the field, bits of vibrating strings.

Dec 24, 2023

Holograms Might Save Physics

Posted by in categories: holograms, mathematics, mobile phones, quantum physics, satellites

Even though the guts of General Relativity are obtusely mathematical, and for decades was relegated to math departments rather than proper physics, you get to experience the technological gift of relativity every time you navigate to your favorite restaurant. GPS, the global positioning system, consists of a network of orbiting satellites constantly beaming out precise timing data. Your phone compares those signals to figure out where you are on the Earth. But there is a difference in spacetime between the surface of the Earth and the orbit of the satellites. Without taking general relativity into account, your navigation would simply be incorrect, and you’d be late for dinner.

As revolutions go, general relativity is a big one. And as unifications go, it’s a warning. To make this union happen Einstein had to radically, permanently alter not just our conceptions of gravity as a force acting through space and time, but our conceptions of space and time itself. It took no less than a complete overhaul of our entire philosophical understanding of the relation between space and time to bridge the gap.

Continue reading “Holograms Might Save Physics” »

Dec 24, 2023

Quantum repeaters: From quantum networks to the quantum internet

Posted by in categories: internet, quantum physics

Quantum technology is now at a point where practical work can begin on creating the quantum internet. However, numerous challenges must be overcome before this vision becomes a reality. A global-scale quantum internet requires the development of the quantum repeater, a device that stores and manipulates qubits while interacting with or emitting entangled photons. This review examines different approaches to quantum repeaters and networks, covering their conceptual frameworks, architectures, and current progress in experimental implementation.

Dec 23, 2023

2204.04261 (1).Pdf

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Joe McEntee visits the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to learn about QUANT-NET’s plan to create a quantum network tested for distributed quantum computing applications in the US. Joe McEntee visits Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) in California to check out progress on the enabling quantum technologies.

Dec 23, 2023

Famous quantum experiment could be shrunk to the size of a single atom

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A single, extremely cold atom could play the role of two slits in the classic double-slit experiment from quantum physics, something that was previously thought to be impossible.

By Karmela Padavic-Callaghan

Dec 23, 2023

Researchers demonstrate the potential of a new quantum material for creating two spintronic technologies

Posted by in categories: computing, particle physics, quantum physics

Over the past decade or so, physicists and engineers have been trying to identify new materials that could enable the development of electronic devices that are faster, smaller and more robust. This has become increasingly crucial, as existing technologies are made of materials that are gradually approaching their physical limits.

Antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics are devices or components for electronics that couple a flowing current of charge to the ordered spin ‘texture’ of specific materials. In physics, the term spin refers to the intrinsic angular momentum observed in electrons and other particles.

The successful development of AFM spintronics could have very important implications, as it could lead to the creation of devices or components that surpass Moore’s law, a principle first introduced by microchip manufacturer Gordon Earle Moore’s law essentially states that the memory, speed and performance of computers may be expected to double every two years due to the increase in the number of transistors that a microchip can contain.

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