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Archive for the ‘quantum physics’ category: Page 8

May 28, 2019

Researchers demonstrate constraints on symmetries from holography

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

A pair of researchers, one at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and another at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the University of Tokyo, have recently investigated a set of old conjectures about symmetries in quantum gravity. The specific conjectures of focus: Quantum gravity does not allow for global symmetries; For gauge symmetry, all possible charges must be realized; Internal gauge groups must be compact. Their paper, published in Physical Review Letters, shows that these old assumptions hold within the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS-CFT) correspondence.

“Historically, the concept of symmetry has played important roles in physics, both in identifying and formulating fundamental laws of nature, and in using these laws to understand and predict natural phenomena such as dynamics and phases of matters,” Hirosi Ooguri, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org. “However, there has been theoretical evidence to suggest that, once we combine and (the two fundamental ideas in modern physics), all global symmetries are gone.”

In physics, symmetries can be of two kinds: gauge and global. For several decades, researchers have proposed the idea that global symmetries should not be possible in , as the unified theory of gravity and quantum mechanics would not allow for any symmetry. This is a profound claim with important consequences. For instance, it predicts that a proton would not be stable against decaying into other particles.

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May 27, 2019

This New State of Matter Is a Liquid and a Solid at the Same Time!

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, robotics/AI, space

Scientist have just discovered that, at an atomic level, these elements have both liquid and solid states, giving context to what may be hidden in the cores of celestial bodies.

A New State of Water Reveals a Hidden Ocean in Earth’s Mantle — https://youtu.be/pgm4z8vJVVk

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May 27, 2019

Quantum information in quantum cognition

Posted by in categories: neuroscience, particle physics, quantum physics

Some research topics, says conventional wisdom, a physics PhD student shouldn’t touch with an iron-tipped medieval lance: sinkholes in the foundations of quantum theory. Problems so hard, you’d have a snowball’s chance of achieving progress. Problems so obscure, you’d have a snowball’s chance of convincing anyone to care about progress. Whether quantum physics could influence cognition much.

Quantum physics influences cognition insofar as (i) quantum physics prevents atoms from imploding and (ii) implosion inhabits atoms from contributing to cognition. But most physicists believe that useful entanglement can’t survive in brains. Entanglement consists of correlations shareable by quantum systems and stronger than any achievable by classical systems. Useful entanglement dies quickly in hot, wet, random environments.

Brains form such environments. Imagine injecting entangled molecules A and B into someone’s brain. Water, ions, and other particles would bombard the molecules. The higher the temperature, the heavier the bombardment. The bombardiers would entangle with the molecules via electric and magnetic fields. Each molecule can share only so much entanglement. The more A entangled with the environment, the less A could remain entangled with B. A would come to share a tiny amount of entanglement with each of many particles. Such tiny amounts couldn’t accomplish much. So quantum physics seems unlikely to affect cognition significantly.

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May 26, 2019

Computer Scientists Expand the Frontier of Verifiable Knowledge

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

The universe of problems that a computer can check has grown. The researchers’ secret ingredient? Quantum entanglement.

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May 26, 2019

Microsoft, Alphabet team up to teach quantum computer programming

Posted by in categories: computing, quantum physics

Microsoft, Alphabet and Brilliant are offering a course that teaches you the ins and outs of quantum computer coding.

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May 26, 2019

Scientists using ‘quantum headphones’ to protect delicate data

Posted by in category: quantum physics

Australian scientists have been inspired by noise-cancelling headphones to develop a system for protecting delicate quantum data.

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May 25, 2019

A Quantum Revolution Is Coming

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics, security

Quantum physics, the study of the universe on an atomic scale, gives us a reference model to understand the human ecosystem in the discrete individual unit. It helps us understand how individual human behavior impacts collective systems and the security of humanity.

Metaphorically, we can see this in how a particle can act both like a particle or a wave. The concept of entanglement is at the core of much of applied quantum physics. The commonly understood definition of entanglement says that particles can be generated to have a distinct reliance on each other, despite any three-dimensional or 4-dimensional distance between the particles. What this definition and understanding imply is that even if two or more particles are physically detached with no traditional or measurable linkages, what happens to one still has a quantifiable effect on the other.

Now, individuals and entities across NGIOA are part of an entangled global system. Since the ability to generate and manipulate pairs of entangled particles is at the foundation of many quantum technologies, it is important to understand and evaluate how the principles of quantum physics translate to the survival and security of humanity.

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May 24, 2019

When Quantum Computing Meets AI: Smarter Digital Assistants and More

Posted by in categories: business, engineering, quantum physics, robotics/AI

Quantum computing’s processing power could begin to improve artificial-intelligence systems within about five years, experts and business leaders said.

For example, a quantum computer could develop AI-based digital assistants with true contextual awareness and the ability to fully understand interactions with customers, said Peter Chapman, chief executive of quantum-computing startup IonQ Inc.

“Today, people are frustrated when a digital assistant says, ‘Sorry, I couldn’t understand that,’” said Mr. Chapman, who was named CEO of the venture-capital-backed startup this week after about five years as director of engineering for Amazon.com Inc.’s Amazon Prime. Quantum computers “could alleviate those problems,” he said.

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May 24, 2019

Lithium doesn’t crack under pressure, it transforms

Posted by in categories: materials, quantum physics

Using cutting-edge theoretical calculations performed at NERSC, researchers at Berkeley Lab’s Molecular Foundry have predicted fascinating new properties of lithium—a light alkali metal that has intrigued scientists for two decades with its remarkable diversity of physical states at high pressures.

“Under standard conditions, is a simple metal that forms a textbook crystalline solid. However, scientists have shown that when you put a lithium crystal under , the atomic structure changes and, somewhat counterintuitively, its conductivity drops, becoming less metallic,” said Stephanie Mack, a graduate student research assistant at Berkeley Lab and first author of the study, published in PNAS. “We’ve discovered it also becomes topological, with electronic properties similar to graphene.”

Topological materials are a recently discovered class of solids that display exotic properties, such as having insulating interiors yet highly conductive surfaces, even when deformed. They are exciting for potential applications in next-generation electronics and quantum information science. According to coauthors Sinéad Griffin and Jeff Neaton, lithium becomes topological at high but experimentally achievable pressures, comparable to one-quarter of the pressure at the Earth’s center.

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May 24, 2019

Study investigates how spin-orbit interaction protects Majorana nanowires

Posted by in categories: computing, nanotechnology, quantum physics

Researchers at Delft University of Technology have recently carried out a study investigating spin-orbit interaction in Majorana nanowires. Their study, published in Physical Review Letters, is the first to clearly show the mechanism that enables the creation of the elusive Majorana particle, which could become the building block of a more stable type of quantum computer.

“Our research is aimed at experimental verification of the theoretically proposed Majorana zero-mode,” Jouri Bommer, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Phys.org via email. “This particle, which is its own antiparticle, is of particular interest, because it is predicted to be useful for developing a topological computer.”

Quantum computing is a promising area of computer science that explores the use of quantum-mechanical phenomena and quantum states to store information and solve computational problems. In the future, quantum computers could tackle problems that traditional computing methods are unable to solve, for instance enabling the computational and deterministic design of new drugs and molecules.

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