Archive for the ‘particle physics’ category: Page 15

Aug 24, 2020

A No-Nonsense Explanation of How the Higgs Gives Particles Their Masses

Posted by in category: particle physics

A simplified explanation of the higgs mechanism.

Aug 24, 2020

LHC creates matter from light

Posted by in category: particle physics

Scientists on an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider see massive W particles emerging from collisions with electromagnetic fields. How can this happen?

Aug 23, 2020

CERN’s Newest Accelerator Awakens: Linac 4 Has Taken Over As the First Accelerator in LHC Injection Chain

Posted by in category: particle physics

The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is abuzz once again. The second long shutdown (LS2) has come to an end for CERN’s newest accelerator – Linac 4 – and the accelerator complex’s slow awakening from a two-year repair-and-recuperation hibernation has begun. The three-week machine-development run until mid-August saw low-energy beams of negative hydrogen ions (H) fly through the first part of the accelerator for the first time since it was connected to the PS Booster. On August 20, the first beams at the nominal energy of 160 MeV were accelerated through the entire machine and into a dedicated beam dump located at the end of the linac. Over the coming months, the brand-new accelerator will finish being commissioned and will be made ready to deliver various beams to the PS Booster in December.

CERN is famous for its circular accelerators, in particular the 27-kilometer-circumference Large Hadron Collider. But the protons that circulate in these bigger machines first undergo acceleration in a humble and relatively small linear accelerator, or linac. In 2018, Linac 2, which had fed protons to CERN’s accelerator complex since 1978, was finally retired, with the 86-meter-long Linac 4 ready to take its place. But a new machine comes with new challenges for the team operating it.

Continue reading “CERN’s Newest Accelerator Awakens: Linac 4 Has Taken Over As the First Accelerator in LHC Injection Chain” »

Aug 23, 2020

Large Hadron Collider Beauty Discovers First “Open-Charm” Tetraquark

Posted by in category: particle physics

The particle, which has been called X(2900), was detected by analyzing all the data LHCb has recorded so far from collisions at CERNs Large Hadron Collider.

The LHCb experiment at CERN has developed a penchant for finding exotic combinations of quarks, the elementary particles that come together to give us composite particles such as the more familiar proton and neutron. In particular, LHCb has observed several tetraquarks, which, as the name suggests, are made of four quarks (or rather two quarks and two antiquarks). Observing these unusual particles helps scientists advance our knowledge of the strong force, one of the four known fundamental forces in the universe. At a CERN seminar held virtually on August 12, LHCb announced the first signs of an entirely new kind of tetraquark with a mass of 2.9 GeV/c²: the first such particle with only one charm quark.

First predicted to exist in 1964, scientists have observed six kinds of quarks (and their antiquark counterparts) in the laboratory: up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom. Since quarks cannot exist freely, they group to form composite particles: three quarks or three antiquarks form “baryons” like the proton, while a quark and an antiquark form “mesons.”

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Aug 21, 2020

Researchers generate attosecond light from industrial laser

Posted by in category: particle physics

University of Central Florida researchers are making the cutting-edge field of attosecond science more accessible to researchers from all disciplines.

Their method to help open up the field is detailed in a new study published today in the journal Science Advances.

An is one billionth of a billionth of a second, and the ability to make measurements with attosecond precision allows researchers to study the fast motion of electrons inside atoms and molecules at their natural time scale.

Aug 21, 2020

Physicists Say They’ve Found Evidence of Elusive Axion Particle

Posted by in categories: cosmology, particle physics

While axions are not currently a proposed direct explanation for dark matter, they could’ve set the stage for the creation of dark matter in the early stages of our universe.

Scientists are undeniably excited by this third possibility, though they’re also urging restraint due to the other potential explanations.

“I’m trying to be calm here, but it’s hard not to be hyperbolic,” Neal Weiner, a particle theorist at New York University, who was not involved in the research, told The New York Times. “If this is real, calling it a game changer would be an understatement.”

Aug 19, 2020

Scientists Discovered an Unexplained ‘Heartbeat’ of Bright Energy in Space

Posted by in categories: particle physics, space

Another potential explanation is that the heartbeat is illuminated by more diffuse and unstructured outflows of gas and particles generated by the disk’s precession. These outflows are not as concentrated and luminous as the jets, but they could potentially ripple out to Fermi J1913+0515 and light it up in this unique way.

The team is in the midst of collecting follow-up observations with the IRAM 30m millimeter radio telescope in Spain that might constrain the origins of the strange gamma ray heartbeat.

“We discovered the source, and discovered its periodicity, but we do not know what it means or how it is produced, so we need more observations to continue the study,” Li said.

Continue reading “Scientists Discovered an Unexplained ‘Heartbeat’ of Bright Energy in Space” »

Aug 19, 2020

Ultralight ‘Super-Material’ Is 10 Times Stronger Than Steel

Posted by in categories: materials, particle physics

Circa 2016

By using heat and temperature to modify the orientation of atoms, scientists have created a spongy, ultrastrong material that is lighter than a zip-close bag.

Aug 18, 2020

Goodbye Passwords, Hello ‘Unbreakable’ Quantum IDs Containing 1,000 Trillion Atoms

Posted by in categories: particle physics, quantum physics

What if I were to tell you that passwords could be replaced by 1,000 trillion atoms to create an unclonable ID tag? Yeah, that.

Aug 18, 2020

NASA Is Tracking a Vast, Growing Anomaly in Earth’s Magnetic Field

Posted by in categories: particle physics, satellites

NASA is actively monitoring a strange anomaly in Earth’s magnetic field: a giant region of lower magnetic intensity in the skies above the planet, stretching out between South America and southwest Africa.

This vast, developing phenomenon, called the South Atlantic Anomaly, has intrigued and concerned scientists for years, and perhaps none more so than NASA researchers. The space agency’s satellites and spacecraft are particularly vulnerable to the weakened magnetic field strength within the anomaly, and the resulting exposure to charged particles from the Sun.

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